Presentation on theme: "Abdominal Assessment Lisa Pezik, RN, BScN Clinical Educator."— Presentation transcript:
Abdominal Assessment Lisa Pezik, RN, BScN Clinical Educator
Objectives Review basic anatomy of the abdominal system. Discuss assessment techniques. Critically think through common problems. Discuss treatment plans for these problems.
GI System Gastrointestinal System 30 Feet Long Muscles, vessels, organs From mouth to anus Turns food into energy, growth, cell repair Hormones of digestion Gastrin Secretin Cholecystokinin Gastric inhibitory peptide
Inside Muscles Muscles Support the abdominal cavity Protect organs Weakness leads to: Hernias Distention Postural problems Back pain Risk of Falls
Vessels Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart. Veins carry de-oxygenated blood to the heart.
Organs Upper GI Esophagus Pancreas Gallbladder Stomach Spleen Liver Duodenum Lower GI Small Intestine Large Intestine Appendix
Functions of The Organs Esophagus Carries liquids and saliva to the stomach Pancreas Digestive enzymes to control insulin and glucagon Stomach Secretes enzymes to digest food Muscles churn to process food Pyloric sphincter pushes food to the small intestine
Functions of the Organs Spleen Stores and produces lymphocytes to aid immunity Gallbladder Aids in fat digestion and stores bile Liver Bile production Immune functions Blood clotting Stores sugar Metabolizes drugs
Functions of the Organs Small intestine Chemical digestion occurs Absorbs nutrients 21 feet long Large intestine Absorbs water and lubricates contents Neutralizes acids and bacteria 5 feet long Appendix 4 inches long Junction of small and large intestine Stores good bacteria in the gut?
Auscultation Where to begin Start in RUQ and listen 2 minutes in each quadrant Absent, hypo/hyper/normoactive Normal sounds in the small intestine High pitched and gurgling Normal sounds in the large intestine Low pitched and rumbling Normal Rate 5-35 sounds a minute
Percussion Percuss all quadrants for dullness Percuss for tympany Low drum like sound caused by gas Percuss for hyper-ressonance Increased lower pitch due to distended bowel Percuss bladder volume Fullness causes pressure upwards
Ascites Build up of fluid in the abdomen High pressure in the blood vessels of the liver Low levels of albumin Caused by: Cancer Liver failure Pancreatitis CHF Portal Vein Thrombosis
Peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum causing severe pain
Points to Ponder Pain = Inflammation Dullness with percussion = Fullness of normal OR abnormal structure Crepitus = Diverticulitis or organ perforation Bruising = Hemorrhage or injury