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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Force, Mass, and Acceleration Foundations of Physics

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Net Force Sum of all forces acting on an object Balance Forces – All the forces acting on the object are balanced so the net force on the object = zero. Unbalance Forces – All the forces acting on the object are not balanced so the net force on the object is not zero. Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The forces acting on the object are balanced so it continues with constant motion due to inertia The forces acting on the object are not balanced so its motion changes in the direction of the net force

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Newton’s First Law of Motion Also called the law of inertia States: Every object continues in a state of rest or constant speed in a straight line unless acted on by a nonzero net force.

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A sheet of paper can be quickly withdrawn from under a soft-drink can without the can toppling, because A.gravity pulls harder on the can than on the paper. B.the can has weight. C.the can has inertia. D.none of the above. Newton’s First Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A sheet of paper can be quickly withdrawn from under a soft-drink can without the can toppling, because A.gravity pulls harder on the can than on the paper. B.the can has weight. C.the can has inertia. D.none of the above. Newton’s First Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley If you swing a stone overhead in a horizontal circle and the string breaks, the tendency of the stone is to follow a A.curved path. B.straight-line path. C.spiral path. D.vertical path. Newton’s First Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley If you swing a stone overhead in a horizontal circle and the string breaks, the tendency of the stone is to follow a A.curved path. B.straight-line path. C.spiral path. D.vertical path. Newton’s First Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Newton’s Second Law of Motion The acceleration produced by a net force on an object is directly proportional to the net force, is in the same direction as the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Newton’s Second Law of Motion _________net force, _______mass _______acceleration ________ net force, _______mass ________ acceleration smalllargesmall large

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Consider a cart pushed along a track with a certain force. If the force remains the same while the mass of the cart decreases to half, the acceleration of the cart A.remains the same. B.halves. C.doubles. D.changes unpredictably. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Consider a cart pushed along a track with a certain force. If the force remains the same while the mass of the cart decreases to half, the acceleration of the cart A.remains the same. B.halves. C.doubles. D.changes unpredictably. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Push a cart along a track so twice as much net force acts upon it. If the acceleration remains the same, what is a reasonable explanation? A.The mass of the cart doubled when the force doubled. B.The cart experiences a force that it didn’t before. C.The track is not level. D.Friction reversed direction. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Push a cart along a track so twice as much net force acts upon it. If the acceleration remains the same, what is a reasonable explanation? A.The mass of the cart doubled when the force doubled. B.The cart experiences a force that it didn’t before. C.The track is not level. D.Friction reversed direction. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Newton’s Second Law of Motion free fall - When the only force acting on a falling object is gravity (negligible air resistance / drag). An object in free fall accelerates toward Earth (or down) at 9.8m/s 2. This means the object’s velocity changes by 9.8m/s each second it falls.

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley At one instant an object in free fall has a speed of 40 m/s. Its speed one second later is (answers have been rounded) A.also 40 m/s. B.45 m/s. C.50 m/s. D.none of the above. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley At one instant an object in free fall has a speed of 40 m/s. Its speed one second later is A.also 40 m/s. B.45 m/s. C.50 m/s. D.none of the above. Comment: We assume the object is falling downward. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Newton’s Second Law of Motion Newton’s 2 nd Law explains why all objects in free fall (no drag) accelerate at the same rate. Twice the force on twice the mass Same acceleration as half the force on half the mass.

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A 5-kg iron ball and a 10-kg iron ball are dropped from rest. For negligible air resistance, the acceleration of the heavier ball will be A.less. B.the same. C.more. D.undetermined. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A 5-kg iron ball and a 10-kg iron ball are dropped from rest. For negligible air resistance, the acceleration of the heavier ball will be A.less. B.the same. C.more. D.undetermined. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A 5-kg iron ball and a 10-kg iron ball are dropped from rest. When the free-falling 5-kg ball reaches a speed of 10 m/s, the speed of the free-falling 10-kg ball is A.less than 10 m/s. B.10 m/s. C.more than 10 m/s. D.undetermined. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A 5-kg iron ball and a 10-kg iron ball are dropped from rest. When the free-falling 5-kg ball reaches a speed of 10 m/s, the speed of the free-falling 10-kg ball is A.less than 10 m/s. B.10 m/s. C.more than 10 m/s. D.undetermined. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Newton’s Second Law of Motion Drag (air resistance) opposes the motion of falling objects and therefore, reduces the net force acting on the object. In a vacuum (no air to produce drag) the coin and feather will fall at the same rate In air the force of drag is greater on the feather. The larger drag decreases the net force acting on the feather so if falls slower

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Newton’s Second Law of Motion When the force due to gravity acting downward and air resistance acting upward are balanced, the net force acting on the object is zero and the object fall with a constant velocity. Terminal Velocity - Maximum velocity an object can reach due to the affects of drag (air resistance)

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley When a 20-N falling object encounters 5 N of air resistance, its acceleration of fall is A.less than g. B.more than g. C.g. D.terminated. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley When a 20-N falling object encounters 5 N of air resistance, its acceleration of fall is A.less than g. B.more than g. C.g. D.terminated. Explanation: Acceleration of non-free fall is always less than g. Acceleration will actually be (20 N – 5 N)/2 kg = 7.5 m/s 2. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley If a 50-N person is to fall at terminal speed, the air resistance needed is A.less than 50 N. B.50 N. C.more than 50 N. D.none of the above. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley If a 50-N person is to fall at terminal speed, the air resistance needed is A.less than 50 N. B.50 N. C.more than 50 N. D.none of the above. Explanation: Then F = 0 and acceleration = 0. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley As the skydiver falls faster and faster through the air, air resistance A.increases. B.decreases. C.remains the same. D.not enough information. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley As the skydiver falls faster and faster through the air, air resistance A.increases. B.decreases. C.remains the same. D.not enough information. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley As the skydiver continues to fall faster and faster through the air, net force A.increases. B.decreases. C.remains the same. D.not enough information. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley As the skydiver continues to fall faster and faster through the air, net force A.increases. B.decreases. C.remains the same. D.not enough information. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley As the skydiver continues to fall faster and faster through the air, her acceleration A.increases. B.decreases. C.remains the same. D.not enough information. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley As the skydiver continues to fall faster and faster through the air, her acceleration A.increases. B.decreases. C.remains the same. D.not enough information. Newton’s Second Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Newton’s Third Law of Motion Law of action and reaction: Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first. Example: When your hand presses on the wall, the wall simultaneously presses on your hand. Hand and wall press on each other with equal and opposite forces.

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A soccer player kicks a ball with 1500 N of force. The ball exerts a reaction force against the player’s foot of A.somewhat less than 1500 N. B.1500 N. C.somewhat more than 1500 N. D.none of the above. Newton’s Third Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A soccer player kicks a ball with 1500 N of force. The ball exerts a reaction force against the player’s foot of A.somewhat less than 1500 N. B.1500 N. C.somewhat more than 1500 N. D.none of the above. Newton’s Third Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Newton’s Third Law of Motion Simple Rule to Identify Action and Reaction: Action— Object A exerts a force on object B. Reaction— Object B exerts a force on object A.

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley When you step off a curb, Earth pulls you downward. The reaction to this force is A.a slight air resistance. B.nonexistent in this case. C.you pull the Earth upward. D.none of the above. Newton’s Third Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley When you step off a curb, Earth pulls you downward. The reaction to this force is A.a slight air resistance. B.nonexistent in this case. C.you pull the Earth upward. D.none of the above. Newton’s Third Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Newton’s Third Law of Motion Action and Reaction on Different Masses: If the same force is applied to two objects of different masses, greater mass object small acceleration smaller mass object large acceleration

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley When a cannon is fired, the accelerations of the cannon and cannonball are different, because the A.forces don’t occur at the same time. B.forces, although theoretically are the same, in practice aren’t the same. C.masses are different. D.ratios of force to mass are the same. Newton’s Third Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley When a cannon is fired, the accelerations of the cannon and cannonball are different, because the A.forces don’t occur at the same time. B.forces, although theoretically are the same, in practice aren’t the same. C.masses are different. D.ratios of force to mass are the same. Newton’s Third Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Consider a high-speed bus colliding head-on with an innocent bug. The force of impact splatters the unfortunate bug over the windshield. Newton’s Third Law of Motion A situation to ponder…

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Which is greater, the force on the bug or the force on the bus? A.Bug. B.Bus. C.Both are the same. D.Cannot say. A situation to ponder… CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Which is greater, the force on the bug or the force on the bus? A.Bug. B.Bus. C.Both are the same. D.Cannot say. Comment: Although the forces are equal in magnitude, the effects are very different. Do you know why? A situation to ponder… CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Two people of equal mass on slippery ice push off from each other. Will both move at the same speed in opposite directions? A.Yes. B.Yes, but only if both push equally. C.No. D.No, unless acceleration occurs. Newton’s Third Law of Motion CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Two people of equal mass on slippery ice push off from each other. Will both move at the same speed in opposite directions? A.Yes. B.Yes, but only if both push equally. C.No. D.No, unless acceleration occurs. Explanation: However they push, the result is equal-magnitude forces on equal masses, which produce equal accelerations and, therefore, equal changes in speed. Newton’s Third Law of Motion CHECK YOUR ANSWER

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