Presentation on theme: "Happy New Year!!! Don’t get too comfortable… We will be changing desks after all have arrived…"— Presentation transcript:
Happy New Year!!! Don’t get too comfortable… We will be changing desks after all have arrived…
Goals Methods “business” –www.rica.nesinc.comwww.rica.nesinc.com –Feb. 11, April 22 Experience activities that focus on the comprehension strategies of visualization and inferring A continued look at guided reading
A synthesis of research (Pearson, Dole, Duffy and Roehler, 1992) reveals that active, proficient readers construct meaning by… Activating prior knowledge before, during and after reading (Anderson and Pearson, 1984) Asking questions of themselves, the authors, and the texts they read (Raphael, 1984) Creating visual and other sensory images from text during and after reading (Pressley, 1976) Drawing inferences from text to form conclusions, make critical judgments, and create unique interpretations (Hansen, 1981) Determining the most important ideas and themes in text (Palinscar and Brown, 1984) Synthesizing what they read (Brown, Day, and Jones, 1983)
Gradual Release of Responsibility There are, in the end, only two main ways human beings learn: by observing others (directly or vicariously) and by trying things out for themselves. Novices learn from experts and from experience. That’s all there is to it. Everything else is in the details. --Deborah Meier
Think Aloud (from Opitz, M. & Rasinski, T. (1998). Goodbye round robin: 25 effective oral reading strategies. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.) 1.Select a passage to read aloud. 2.Begin reading the passage aloud as the students follow along. When you come to a trouble spot, stop and think it through aloud while students listen. 3.When you have completed the reading in this way, invite students to add their own thoughts. 4. Pair students had have them practice the procedure with each other.
Visualizing and Inferring What ideas did you get from chapter 8?
Visualizing “Visualizing personalizes reading, keeps us engaged, and often prevents us from abandoning a book.” Harvey and Goudvis p. 97 Picture yourself in a boat on a river, with tangerine trees and marmalade skies. John Lennon
Proficient readers… Are aware of and can communicate the pictures that form in their minds Form images as active, self-regulated, learners Create images during and after reading. Make visual, auditory, other sensory, as well as emotional connections
Visualization Prompts –Try to imagine the setting. –What pictures came to mind as you read this page? –As you listen, create a picture in your mind of what you think is happening. –What sensory details did the author use to help create a picture of the story in your mind? –What images did you see in your mind as your read? –What sounds did you hear as you read? –What words or phrases did the author use to help you create an image in your mind? –Did you create a movie in your mind? Describe it. –Try to picture in your mind someone who would remind you of a character in the story. –In my mind’s eye, I imagine _____. –In my head, I can see _____. –I have a picture of _____. –I imagine _____. –I can imagine what it is like to _____.
Visualizing Sensory Details: Tar Beach by Faith Ringgold
Visualizing: Sketch to Stretch 1.Explain the strategy. 2.Demonstrate the strategy. Be sure to explain to students that they need not be concerned with their artwork. 3.Guide students to apply the strategy. 4.Practice individually or in small groups. 5.Reflect.
To discuss… What is important to remember about visualization experiences? What activities would you consider using with students? How would you scaffold these activities?
Inferencing “Inferencing is the bedrock of comprehension…it is about reading faces, reading body language, reading expressions, and reading tone, as well as reading text.” Harvey and Goudvis p. 105
Proficient readers… Make simple and complex inferences, even with out being aware of it. Make original meaning out of an intersection of background knowledge and the text. Go beyond the literal. Revise, enrich and sometimes abandon meaning. Make predictions, confirm predictions, and test meaning while reading.
Inferencing Prompts –What evidence does the author provide to support _____ ? –What does the author want you to realize? –What facts can you derive based on the following clues? –What clues did the author give that led to your conclusion? –What is the story beneath the story? –What would happen if _____ ? –Try to read between the lines. –How do you know that? –I wonder…
Drawing Inferences: Borreguita and the Coyote by Verna Aardema
Character Report Card: Borreguita and the Coyote SubjectGradeComments Survival skills Cleverness Courage Cunning Physical strength Strategic thinking
Drawing Inferences: Hot Seat Consider the characters in the story. Think of questions for which the text does not supply a literal answer but requires you to infer. When you are in the hot seat, answer as if you were the character. If you are asked a question that could be answered in a word, be sure to provide the rationale for your answer you are giving.
To discuss… What did you like about Hot Seat and Character Report Card? How would you scaffold use with students? How might you use them in your classroom? What do they have to with drawing inferences?
Bibliography Snaphots by Linda Hoyt Reflect, Revisit, Retell by Linda Hoyt Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader’s Workshop by Keene & Zimmerman Nonfiction Matters: Reading, Writing and Researching in Grades 3-8 by Stephanie Harvey Tar Beach by Faith Ringgold Borreguita and the Coyote by Verna Aardema http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/rl/ll/ www.reading.org/resources/tools/choices.html
Next time: Determining Importance and Synthesizing Read: Harvey and Goudvis, Ch. 9-11 Due: Language Arts Assignment #1 –Choose a piece of fiction or nonfiction that would be appropriate for use in teaching the comprehension strategy of determining importance or synthesizing. Write a lesson plan that incorporates both ELA and ELD standards.