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CHAPTER 13 Other Topics in Capital Budgeting Evaluating projects with unequal lives Identifying embedded options Valuing real options in projects

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Evaluating projects with unequal lives Projects S and L are mutually exclusive, and will be repeated. If k = 10%, which is better? Expected Net CFs Year Project S Project L 0($100,000)($100,000) 1 59,000 33,500 2 59,000 33,500 3 - 33,500 4 - 33,500

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Solving for NPV, with no repetition Enter CFs into calculator CFLO register for both projects, and enter I/YR = 10%. NPV S = $2,397 NPV L = $6,190 Is Project L better? Need replacement chain analysis.

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-100,000 59,000 59,000 59,000 59,000 -100,000 -41,000 Replacement chain Use the replacement chain to calculate an extended NPV S to a common life. Since Project S has a 2-year life and L has a 4-year life, the common life is 4 years. 0123 10% 4 NPV S = $4,377

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What is real option analysis? Real options exist when managers can influence the size and riskiness of a project’s cash flows by taking different actions during the project’s life. Real option analysis incorporates typical NPV budgeting analysis with an analysis for opportunities resulting from managers’ decisions.

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What are some examples of real options? Investment timing options Abandonment/shutdown options Growth/expansion options Flexibility options

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Illustrating an investment timing option If we proceed with Project L, its annual cash flows are $33,500, and its NPV is $6,190. However, if we wait one year, we will find out some additional information regarding output prices and the cash flows from Project L. If we wait, the up-front cost will remain at $100,000 and there is a 50% chance the subsequent CFs will be $43,500 a year, and a 50% chance the subsequent CFs will be $23,500 a year.

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Investment timing decision tree At k = 10%, the NPV at t = 1 is: $37,889, if CF’s are $43,500 per year, or -$25,508, if CF’s are $23,500 per year, in which case the firm would not proceed with the project. 50% prob. 0 1 2 3 4 5 Years -$100,000 43,500 43,500 43,500 43,500 -$100,000 23,500 23,500 23,500 23,500

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Should we wait or proceed? If we proceed today, NPV = $6,190. If we wait one year, Expected NPV at t = 1 is 0.5($37,889) + 0.5(0) = $18,944.57, which is worth $18,944.57 / (1.10) = $17,222.34 in today’s dollars (assuming a 10% discount rate). Therefore, it makes sense to wait.

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Issues to consider with investment timing options What’s the appropriate discount rate? Note that increased volatility makes the option to delay more attractive. If instead, there was a 50% chance the subsequent CFs will be $53,500 a year, and a 50% chance the subsequent CFs will be $13,500 a year, expected NPV next year (if we delay) would be: 0.5($69,588) + 0.5(0) = $34,794 > $18,944.57

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Factors to consider when deciding when to invest Delaying the project means that cash flows come later rather than sooner. It might make sense to proceed today if there are important advantages to being the first competitor to enter a market. Waiting may allow you to take advantage of changing conditions.

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Abandonment/shutdown option Project Y has an initial, up-front cost of $200,000, at t = 0. The project is expected to produce after-tax net cash flows of $80,000 for the next three years. At a 10% discount rate, what is Project Y’s NPV? 0 12 3 -$200,000 80,000 80,000 80,000 k = 10% NPV = -$1,051.84

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Abandonment option Project Y’s A-T net cash flows depend critically upon customer acceptance of the product. There is a 60% probability that the product will be wildly successful and produce A-T net CFs of $150,000, and a 40% chance it will produce annual A-T net CFs of -$25,000.

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Abandonment decision tree If the customer uses the product, NPV is $173,027.80. If the customer does not use the product, NPV is -$262,171.30. E(NPV) = 0.6(173,027.8) + 0.4(-262,171.3) = -1,051.84 -$200,000 60% prob. 40% prob. 1 2 3 Years 0 150,000 150,000 150,000 -25,000 -25,000 -25,000

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Issues with abandonment options The company does not have the option to delay the project. The company may abandon the project after a year, if the customer has not adopted the product. If the project is abandoned, there will be no operating costs incurred nor cash inflows received after the first year.

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NPV with abandonment option If the customer uses the product, NPV is $173,027.80. If the customer does not use the product, NPV is -$222,727.27. E(NPV) = 0.6(173,027.8) + 0.4(-222,727.27) = 14,725.77 -$200,000 60% prob. 40% prob. 1 2 3 Years 0 150,000 150,000 150,000 -25,000

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Is it reasonable to assume that the abandonment option does not affect the cost of capital? No, it is not reasonable to assume that the abandonment option has no effect on the cost of capital. The abandonment option reduces risk, and therefore reduces the cost of capital.

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Growth option Project Z has an initial up-front cost of $500,000. The project is expected to produce A-T cash inflows of $100,000 at the end of each of the next five years. Since the project carries a 12% cost of capital, it clearly has a negative NPV. There is a 10% chance the project will lead to subsequent opportunities that have an NPV of $3,000,000 at t = 5, and a 90% chance of an NPV of -$1,000,000 at t = 5.

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NPV with the growth option 100,000 100,000 100,000100,000 100,000 -$500,000 10% prob. 90% prob. 1 2 3 4 5 Years 0 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 -$1,000,000 $3,000,000 At k = 12%, NPV of top branch (10% prob) = $1,562,758.19 NPV of lower branch (90% prob) = -$139,522.38

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NPV with the growth option If it turns out that the project has future opportunities with a negative NPV, the company would choose not to pursue them. Therefore, the NPV of the bottom branch should include only the -$500,000 initial outlay and the $100,000 annual cash flows, which lead to an NPV of -$139,522.38. Thus, the expected value of this project should be: NPV= 0.1($1,562,758) + 0.9(-$139,522) = $30,706.

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Flexibility options Flexibility options exist when it’s worth spending money today, which enables you to maintain flexibility down the road.

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