2 Contents Bandgap Energies Band Offsets Quantum Well Devices Substrate AbsorptionDistributed Bragg Reflector LEDs
3 Bandgap EnergiesThe direct() bandgap and indirect(X) bandgap vari-ation with composition is given byE(x) = x (eV)EX(x) = x (eV)At room-temperature the direct-indirect crossover occurs for an alloy composition of x =0.53,corresponding to an emission wavelength of 555 nm. The (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P alloy is direct from 555 to 650 nm.
4 Band OffsetsA least squares fit to these data points results in expressions for the conduc-tion band offsets given byΔEc(x) = 0.369x (eV) x≦0.53ΔEc(x) = x (eV) x≦0.53and valence band offsets given byΔEv(x) = 0.241x (eV)
5 Quantum Well DevicesQuantum wells employed in (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P have numerous improvements in device performance,including:Reduced threshold currentsShortened wavelength cw operationIncreased characteristic, operating temperatures and increased power conversion efficiencies“thin” QW LED devices offer the potential of higher injected carrier densities, and hence more efficient radiative recombination.Quantum well structures utilizing quantum size effects(QSE) to shorten the emission wavelength.
6 Substrate Absorption (cont.) The (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P alloy lattice-matched to GaAs is the material of choice for visible AlGaInP LED.However, the GaAs substrate absorbs at least half of the light emitted by the active layer.So, in order to circumvent absorption of light by the GaAs substrate, many attempts have been made to grow the AlGaInP alloy lattice-mismatched on transparent substrates. Such as GaP.But the cost of transparent substrate(TS) is higher than absorbing substrate(AS), we can grow distributed bragg reflector between GaAs substrate and active layer.
8 Distributed Bragg Reflector LEDs The DBR LED structure is well-suited to minimize the absorption of light by the GaAs substrate in high-efficiency (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P visible LEDs.A highly reflective DBR mirror is generally formed from a repeated periodic stack of alternating high and low index quarter-wavelength layers.
9 Applications for High-Brightness LEDs Automotive signal lightingAutomotive interior lightingTraffic signal lightsLarge-area displaysLiquid -crystal display backlightingFiber-optic LED backlighting techiniques
10 Fiber-optic LED backlighting techiniques Using LED lamps to backlight an LCD display is to pipelight into a bundle of plastic fiber optics.The fiber-optic bundle is formed into a flat sheet behind the diffuser-transflector film.Then the fiber-optic sheet to evenly backlight the LCD display.