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Brief History of Liberian Civil Conflict 1822 - Repatriation of Freed Slaves from United States to Liberia by the American Colonization Society. 1822.

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Presentation on theme: "Brief History of Liberian Civil Conflict 1822 - Repatriation of Freed Slaves from United States to Liberia by the American Colonization Society. 1822."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Brief History of Liberian Civil Conflict Repatriation of Freed Slaves from United States to Liberia by the American Colonization Society Repatriation of Freed Slaves from United States to Liberia by the American Colonization Society. July 26, 1847 – Independence gained, constitution fashioned after US. Elite Congo settler minority establish political hegemony over Country aborigines July 26, 1847 – Independence gained, constitution fashioned after US. Elite Congo settler minority establish political hegemony over Country aborigines April 14, 1979 – Rice riots fueled by socio-economic and political discontentment of masses over settlers oligarchy April 14, 1979 – Rice riots fueled by socio-economic and political discontentment of masses over settlers oligarchy April 12, 1980 – Bloody military coup detat led by Master Sergeant Samuel Doe breaks settlers political hegemony. President William Tolbert butchered, 17 cabinet members summarily executed by PRC Junta. New elite class emerges among country aborigines. Opposition grows within PRC membership; political intrigues, foiled coup detats and executions abound April 12, 1980 – Bloody military coup detat led by Master Sergeant Samuel Doe breaks settlers political hegemony. President William Tolbert butchered, 17 cabinet members summarily executed by PRC Junta. New elite class emerges among country aborigines. Opposition grows within PRC membership; political intrigues, foiled coup detats and executions abound 1985 – Samuel Doe wins elections amid allegations of vote rigging 1985 – Samuel Doe wins elections amid allegations of vote rigging 1986 – Former AFL commanding general Thomas Quiwonkpa invasion foiled; ethnic cleansing of Gios and Manos (Quiwonkpas tribesmen) begins 1986 – Former AFL commanding general Thomas Quiwonkpa invasion foiled; ethnic cleansing of Gios and Manos (Quiwonkpas tribesmen) begins December 24, 1989 – Charles Taylors NPFL rebels invade Liberia via La Cote dIvoire. Mass exodus of Liberians into Diaspora; human rights abuses, mass killing along tribal lines; December 24, 1989 – Charles Taylors NPFL rebels invade Liberia via La Cote dIvoire. Mass exodus of Liberians into Diaspora; human rights abuses, mass killing along tribal lines; 1990 President Doe butchered by NPFL splinter. ECOWAS sends in regional peacekeepers. Interim government installed; rebel groups sprout 1990 President Doe butchered by NPFL splinter. ECOWAS sends in regional peacekeepers. Interim government installed; rebel groups sprout 1996 – UNOMIL disarms factions (NPFL, ULIMO, LDF, LPC, INPFL, NPFL-CRC, etc.) 1996 – UNOMIL disarms factions (NPFL, ULIMO, LDF, LPC, INPFL, NPFL-CRC, etc.) Charles Taylor elected; Charles Taylor elected; September 18, 1998 – Krahns massacred in Camp Johnson shootout by Government forces; ULIMO-J faction leader Roosevelt Johnson, others go into exile and regroup. September 18, 1998 – Krahns massacred in Camp Johnson shootout by Government forces; ULIMO-J faction leader Roosevelt Johnson, others go into exile and regroup – LURD forces invade Liberias Lofa county via Guinea 1999 – LURD forces invade Liberias Lofa county via Guinea 2000 – media clampdown, political unrest, travel ban imposed 2000 – media clampdown, political unrest, travel ban imposed 2002 – UN imposes sanctions on the Taylor regime to curb destabilization of Sierra Leone 2002 – UN imposes sanctions on the Taylor regime to curb destabilization of Sierra Leone July 2003 – War escalates, LURD and offshoot faction MODEL, besiege capital city July 2003 – War escalates, LURD and offshoot faction MODEL, besiege capital city August 18, 2003 – CPA signed paving the way for installation of interim government; dispatch of Stabilization Force to Liberia August 18, 2003 – CPA signed paving the way for installation of interim government; dispatch of Stabilization Force to Liberia

3 DDRR Liberia: The Rocky Road to Peace 1. The former LURD rebel faction controlled 85 percent of Liberia by 2003 – former leader: Sekou Damate Conneh; Membership predominantly Mandingoes, Krahns, and Southeasters. 1. The former LURD rebel faction controlled 85 percent of Liberia by 2003 – former leader: Sekou Damate Conneh; Membership predominantly Mandingoes, Krahns, and Southeasters. 2. The former MODEL rebel group comprised mainly Southeasterners; believed to be offshoot of LURD faction created to increase pressure on the pariah Taylor regime. Former leader: Thomas Nimely Yaya; 2. The former MODEL rebel group comprised mainly Southeasterners; believed to be offshoot of LURD faction created to increase pressure on the pariah Taylor regime. Former leader: Thomas Nimely Yaya; 3. The Former GOL, forces loyal to President Taylor. Included militias, paramilitary, AFL, etc. Former leader - Defense Minister Daniel Chea 3. The Former GOL, forces loyal to President Taylor. Included militias, paramilitary, AFL, etc. Former leader - Defense Minister Daniel Chea CHALLENGE: HOW TO GET THE BELLIGERENTS TO DIALOGUE AND END THE BLOODBATH? CHALLENGE: HOW TO GET THE BELLIGERENTS TO DIALOGUE AND END THE BLOODBATH? Profile of the Warring Parties (July 2003)

4 DDRR Liberia: The Rocky Road to Peace II (Accra 2003) ECOWAS – Sub-regional solidarity; willpower to curb cross-border instability; arms trafficking ECOWAS – Sub-regional solidarity; willpower to curb cross-border instability; arms trafficking ICGL – Chief Mediatory role ICGL – Chief Mediatory role United States Government – financier United States Government – financier The warring parties: LURD (Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy); MODEL (Movement for Democracy in Liberia) and the former GOL (government of Liberia) forces The warring parties: LURD (Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy); MODEL (Movement for Democracy in Liberia) and the former GOL (government of Liberia) forces Civil Society (Teachers, lawyers, marketers, yanna boys, doctors, religious leaders, lawyers Civil Society (Teachers, lawyers, marketers, yanna boys, doctors, religious leaders, lawyers Political Parties Political Parties WIPNET (Network of Liberian Women) WIPNET (Network of Liberian Women) Refugees Refugees Media Media Others Others Following months of bickering, the Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement was finally signed August 18, 2003 in Ghana. Gyude Bryant selected Chairman of power-sharing government. ECOWAS sends in vanguard peacekeepers to maintain ceasefire. Joint Monitoring Committee (JMC) formed. The Stakeholders The Facilitators

5 DDRR Liberia: The Rocky Road Home Accra Peace Agreement: legitimized peace process; established transitional government, NCDDRR and other National Commissions; clearly identified non-state actors and defined role of Stabilization Force in the DDR process Accra Peace Agreement: legitimized peace process; established transitional government, NCDDRR and other National Commissions; clearly identified non-state actors and defined role of Stabilization Force in the DDR process Configuration and role of National Commission on Disarmament, Demobilization, Rehabilitation and Reintegration in implementation of CPA Configuration and role of National Commission on Disarmament, Demobilization, Rehabilitation and Reintegration in implementation of CPA UN Resolution 1509 and UN Resolution 1509 and UN Resolution 1497 clearly indicate role of UN PKF (UNMIL) in the peace process, commencing first with the disarmament, demobilization, rehabilitation and reintegration of combatants of the three warring factions (LURD, MODEL, former GOL and other militias) UN Resolution 1497 clearly indicate role of UN PKF (UNMIL) in the peace process, commencing first with the disarmament, demobilization, rehabilitation and reintegration of combatants of the three warring factions (LURD, MODEL, former GOL and other militias) The Joint Monitoring Committee (JMC) – comprising 9 factional reps, three from each of the warring factions, and UN military observers to monitor and observe the ceasefire The Joint Monitoring Committee (JMC) – comprising 9 factional reps, three from each of the warring factions, and UN military observers to monitor and observe the ceasefire Formation of the NCDDRR (Policy Body). Membership comprises European Union, United States government, International Contact Group on Liberia (Ghana, Nigeria, Special Representative of ECOWAS and Special Representative of the AU), the UN, representatives of the warring factions, NTGL and relevant agencies of government Formation of the NCDDRR (Policy Body). Membership comprises European Union, United States government, International Contact Group on Liberia (Ghana, Nigeria, Special Representative of ECOWAS and Special Representative of the AU), the UN, representatives of the warring factions, NTGL and relevant agencies of government Prelude to DRR

6 DDRR Strategic Implementation Framework Drafting of DDRR Framework in October 2003 Role of United Nations Mission in Liberia Role of United Nations Mission in Liberia Structure and Role of NCDDRR Structure and Role of NCDDRR NCDDRR Secretariat NCDDRR Secretariat

7 Implementation Roadmap The political process drives DDRR: The political process drives DDRR: Policy Body 1 st seating November 27, 2003 Policy Body 1 st seating November 27, 2003 December 1, 2003 – symbolic destruction of arms December 1, 2003 – symbolic destruction of arms December 5, 2003 – warring factions renew commitment to the DDRR process December 5, 2003 – warring factions renew commitment to the DDRR process December 7, 2003 – DDRR formally launched December 7, 2003 – DDRR formally launched December 7,8 and 9 – process ran into trouble December 7,8 and 9 – process ran into trouble December 15 – DDRR process suspended, to resume January 20, 2004 December 15 – DDRR process suspended, to resume January 20, 2004 January 15 – meeting held to reassess the date for resuming the process. Delay in resumption of the process raised the question of security and how to contain the combatants while they were awaiting to be disarmed: IFP (Interim Feeding Program) launched by NTGL January 15 – meeting held to reassess the date for resuming the process. Delay in resumption of the process raised the question of security and how to contain the combatants while they were awaiting to be disarmed: IFP (Interim Feeding Program) launched by NTGL January 20 – the process of the DDRR resumes with timeline for information and sensitization campaign and identification of cantonment sites; 48 influential commanders (16 each from the three warring factions) were brought on board to be part of the NCDDRR as DD Facilitators. Implementing partner and service providers were requested to hire the combatants in the construction of the cantonment sites January 20 – the process of the DDRR resumes with timeline for information and sensitization campaign and identification of cantonment sites; 48 influential commanders (16 each from the three warring factions) were brought on board to be part of the NCDDRR as DD Facilitators. Implementing partner and service providers were requested to hire the combatants in the construction of the cantonment sites

8 Preconditions for Disarmament Adequate presence of UN force on the ground Adequate presence of UN force on the ground Mobilization of implementing partners and service providers (WHO, UNICEF, World Vision, WFP, UNIFEM, UNDP, UNFPA, MERLIN, MSF, CRS, LWS/WF, IOM, FIND, READCORP, CRID, UMCOR, Talking Drum Studio, etc) Mobilization of implementing partners and service providers (WHO, UNICEF, World Vision, WFP, UNIFEM, UNDP, UNFPA, MERLIN, MSF, CRS, LWS/WF, IOM, FIND, READCORP, CRID, UMCOR, Talking Drum Studio, etc) Construction of cantonment sites Construction of cantonment sites Submission of a comprehensive list of combatants for the three warring factions, indicating type and location of weapons Submission of a comprehensive list of combatants for the three warring factions, indicating type and location of weapons Simultaneous disarmament of combatants Simultaneous disarmament of combatants Massive information and sensitization campaign targeting combatants and communities Massive information and sensitization campaign targeting combatants and communities WHO QUALIFIES FOR DISARMAMENT? Former GOL LURDMODEL Other militias Child soldiers (Interim care centers – UNICEF) Women Associated With Fighting Forces (WAFFs) Children Associated With Fighting Forces (CAFFs) Wounded and disabled combatants Unarmed combatants HOW DOES ONE QUALIFY TO BE DISARMED (CRITERIA)? 150 rounds of ammunition and all conventional weapons as determined by UNMIL Surrender of units with shared weapons Physical qualification of combatants to be determined by MILOBs (Military observers) BENEFITS Receive food, clothing and basic hygiene kits during cantonment US$300 Transitional Safety-net Allowance to sustain the ex- combatant while awaiting to enter RR Upon demobilization, ex-combatant can enter any training program he/she chooses.

9 Collaboration and the Issue of National Ownership Consultations with implementing partners, service providers, religious groups, political parties and civil society to buy into the process and give it legitimacy Consultations with implementing partners, service providers, religious groups, political parties and civil society to buy into the process and give it legitimacy Regular meeting of the Policy Body (to determine progress and adjust schedule of the DDRR as the need arises, i.e. security, compliance with the CPA and ensuring ongoing commitment of the warring factions to the process Regular meeting of the Policy Body (to determine progress and adjust schedule of the DDRR as the need arises, i.e. security, compliance with the CPA and ensuring ongoing commitment of the warring factions to the process The Joint Implementation Unit (JIU), comprising NCDDRR, UNMIL and UNDP, has brought together technical expertise from the various UN agencies and donor countries with representatives of the NCDDRR and relevant agencies of government reviewing technical matters arising out of the program and submit recommendation to the NCDDRR policy body for decision The Joint Implementation Unit (JIU), comprising NCDDRR, UNMIL and UNDP, has brought together technical expertise from the various UN agencies and donor countries with representatives of the NCDDRR and relevant agencies of government reviewing technical matters arising out of the program and submit recommendation to the NCDDRR policy body for decision

10 DD Information Sensitization Buildup

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13 DDRR Goes Full Blast: April 15, 2004 DDRR officially resumed on April 15, 2004 Four cantonment sites opened sequentially -Gbarnga -Buchanan -Tubmanburg -VOA (Careysburg)

14 Status of DDRR in Liberia DD officially ended October 31, 2004 following NCDDRR Policy Body endorsement on September 11, 2004 DD officially ended October 31, 2004 following NCDDRR Policy Body endorsement on September 11, 2004 Military wings of warring factions officially disbanded and dissolved on November 3, 2004 Military wings of warring factions officially disbanded and dissolved on November 3, ,019 combatants successfully disarmed and demobilized 103,019 combatants successfully disarmed and demobilized Residual caseloads around the country still being processed Residual caseloads around the country still being processed Unarmed combatants list from three warring factions submitted and is being processed for the RR Unarmed combatants list from three warring factions submitted and is being processed for the RR About 60,000 ex-combatants are currently in training under (a) Formal Education (b) Vocational skills training and (c) Apprenticeship schemes About 60,000 ex-combatants are currently in training under (a) Formal Education (b) Vocational skills training and (c) Apprenticeship schemes Parallel programs primarily focused on Community-based Reintegration provided quick-impact employment for ex-combatants and host communities through rehabilitation of public institutions, roads and bridges. Parallel programs are currently concentrating on providing training for XCs and host community members Parallel programs primarily focused on Community-based Reintegration provided quick-impact employment for ex-combatants and host communities through rehabilitation of public institutions, roads and bridges. Parallel programs are currently concentrating on providing training for XCs and host community members The process of the RR is ongoing with about 37,000 former combatants waiting to enter training programs of their choice The process of the RR is ongoing with about 37,000 former combatants waiting to enter training programs of their choice RR funding gap currently stands at US$4.9m RR funding gap currently stands at US$4.9m

15 Challenges, Lessons Learned Proper programme planning Proper programme planning Clear eligibility criteria Clear eligibility criteria Flexibility in the implementation phases Flexibility in the implementation phases Establishment of consensus on number of combatants to be disarmed Establishment of consensus on number of combatants to be disarmed Empowerment of national institutions Empowerment of national institutions Maintaining sustainability and credibility of the process Maintaining sustainability and credibility of the process Sensitization not an event, but a process Sensitization not an event, but a process Smooth transition from DD to RR, to minimize national security risks Smooth transition from DD to RR, to minimize national security risks Provide incentive for agencies that are willing to train former combatants in their communities of origin Provide incentive for agencies that are willing to train former combatants in their communities of origin Support agencies of government that have the statutory responsibility to participate in the RR Support agencies of government that have the statutory responsibility to participate in the RR National Recovery programs must complement the RR program goals and objectives National Recovery programs must complement the RR program goals and objectives Both political and military leaderships of the factions must be engaged at all times Both political and military leaderships of the factions must be engaged at all times DDRR must be implemented within a regional context DDRR must be implemented within a regional context

16 ECOWAS must establish a databank for DDR professionals across the sub-region to do networking and support other member states. Focus of such initiative should be geared towards conflict prevention rather than conflict resolution. ECOWAS must establish a databank for DDR professionals across the sub-region to do networking and support other member states. Focus of such initiative should be geared towards conflict prevention rather than conflict resolution. ECOWAS should institute a comprehensive plan to address current regional security issues ECOWAS should institute a comprehensive plan to address current regional security issues ECOWAS must set up a Trust Fund to complement the efforts of the international community as it relates to conflict resolution and implementation of DDR processes ECOWAS must set up a Trust Fund to complement the efforts of the international community as it relates to conflict resolution and implementation of DDR processes ECOWAS, in collaboration with AU should institute a sub-regional framework to deal with the issue of roving non-state actors, taking into account the Sierra Leone-Liberia initiative that established a sustained regime to curb cross border mercenarism ECOWAS, in collaboration with AU should institute a sub-regional framework to deal with the issue of roving non-state actors, taking into account the Sierra Leone-Liberia initiative that established a sustained regime to curb cross border mercenarism Post-conflict countries must prioritize the implementation of Poverty Reduction Strategy Programs to address the socio-economic needs of their war-affected populations. Such plans should be supported fully by ECOWAS, AU and the rest of the international community Post-conflict countries must prioritize the implementation of Poverty Reduction Strategy Programs to address the socio-economic needs of their war-affected populations. Such plans should be supported fully by ECOWAS, AU and the rest of the international community Post-DDR Small arms collection programs must be prioritized and localized with the support of the national government and the international community Post-DDR Small arms collection programs must be prioritized and localized with the support of the national government and the international community The Way Forward

17 Acknowledgements Thanks to the Ivorian Government, our host, and to OECD for sponsoring our participation in this noble endeavor. Thanks to the Ivorian Government, our host, and to OECD for sponsoring our participation in this noble endeavor. Special thanks ECOWAS, the AU, the United Nations and members of the international community for helping to put out our fire in Liberia. You are your brothers keeper. The Liberian people will hold you dear to their hearts. Special thanks ECOWAS, the AU, the United Nations and members of the international community for helping to put out our fire in Liberia. You are your brothers keeper. The Liberian people will hold you dear to their hearts. To the donor communities, we say a BIG THANK YOU! The Liberian people extend heartfelt thanks and appreciation for standing by them in their darkest hour. We sincerely pray that this will be our last DDR in Liberia. To the donor communities, we say a BIG THANK YOU! The Liberian people extend heartfelt thanks and appreciation for standing by them in their darkest hour. We sincerely pray that this will be our last DDR in Liberia.

18 From Ex-combatants to New Citizens


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