Presentation on theme: "Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Chapter10: Cognitive Behavior Therapy
2 Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) Stresses thinking, judging, deciding, analyzing, and doingAssumes that cognitions, emotions, and behaviors interact and have a reciprocal cause-and-effect relationshipIs highly didactic, very directive, and concerned as much with thinking as with feelingTeaches that our emotions stem mainly from our beliefs, evaluations, interpretations, and reactions to life situations
3 View of Human NatureWe are born with a potential for both rational and irrational thinkingWe are self-talking, self-evaluating, and self-sustaining.We have an inborn tendency toward growth and actualizationWe learn and invent disturbing beliefs and keep ourselves disturbed through our self-talkWe have the capacity to change our cognitive, emotive, and behavioral processes
4 View of Emotional Disturbance We learn irrational belief from significant other during childhoodTeach clients to feel undepressed even when they are unaccepted and unloved by significant others.Blame is at the core of most emotional disturbancesIrrational idea (e.g., I must be loved by everyone) internalize self-defeatingWe have a tendency to make ourselves emotionally disturbed by internalizing self-defeating beliefs
6 Case discussion 1Tom, a college sophomore, want to overcomes his shyness around women. He doe not date and even des his best to keep away from women because he is afraid they will reject him. But he want to change this pattern.Using A-B-C-D-E-F to analyze and help Tom
7 Case discussion 2Mary would like to take a course in creative writing, but she fears that she has no talent. She is afraid of failing, afraid of being told that she is dumb, and afraid of follow through with taking the course.Using A-B-C-D-E-F to analyze and help Mary
8 Case discussion 3Each week John comes to his sessions with a new excuse for why he has not succeeded in following through with his homework assignments. Either he forgets, gets too busy, gets scared. Or puts it off—anything but actually doing something to change what he says he wants to change. Instead of really doing much of anything, he whines each week about how rotten he feels and how he so much would like to change but just doesn’t know how.What are the possible irrational beliefs, which keep John from taking actionsWhat homework assignment might you suggest?
9 Case discussion 4Brent feels that he must win everyone’s approval. He has become a “super nice guy” who goes out of his way to please everyone. Rarely does he assert himself, for fear that he might displease someone who then would not like him.What are the possible irrational beliefs?How do you help Brent?If Brent is Asian American, what cultural components you might take into account?
10 Irrational Ideas Irrational ideas lead to self-defeating behavior Some examples:“I must have love or approval from all the significant people in my life.”“I must perform important tasks competently and perfectly.”“If I don’t get what I want, it’s terrible, and I can’t stand it.”
11 The Therapeutic Process Therapy is seen as an educational processClients learnTo identify and dispute irrational beliefsTo replace ineffective ways of thinking with effective and rational cognitionsTo stop absolutistic thinking, blaming, and repeating false beliefs
12 Therapeutic GoalsA basic goal is to teach clients how to change their dysfunctional emotions and behaviors into health ones.Two main goals of REBT are to assist clients to achieving unconditional self-acceptance and unconditional other acceptance.As clients become more able to accept themselves, they are more likely to unconditionally accept others.
13 Therapist’s function and Role 1. Encouraging clients to discover their irrational beliefs and ideas2. Making connection of how these irrational beliefs lead to emotional disturbances3. Challenging clients to modify or abandon their irrational beliefs.4. Dispute the irrational beliefs and substitute rational beliefs and behaviors.
14 Client’s Experience in Therapy A learner---learn how to apply logical thoughts, experiential exercises, and behavioral homework to problem solving and emotional change.Focus on here-and-now experiencesNot spend much time to exploring clients’ early history and connecting present and pastExpect to actively work outside the therapy sessions.
15 Relationship Between Therapist and Client Intensive therapeutic relationship is not required. But, REBT unconditionally accept all clients and teach them to unconditionally accept others and themselves. (accept them as persons but confront their faulty thinking and self-destructive behaviors)Ellis believes that too much warmth and understanding can be counter-productive, fostering dependence for approval.Therapists shows great faith in their clients’ ability to change themselves.Open and direct in disclosing their own beliefs and valuesTransference is not encouraged, when it occur, the therapist is likely to confront it (e.g., clients believe that they must be liked and loved by their therapists.)
16 Therapeutic techniques and procedures Cognitive methodsDisputing irrational beliefsIf I don’t get what I want, it is not at the end of the worldDoing cognitive homeworkApplying ABC theory in daily life’s problemsPut themselves in risk-taking situations to challenge their self-limiting beliefs.Replace negative self-statement to positive messageChanging one’s languageIt would be absolutely awful..It would be inconvenientUsing humorHumorous songs
17 Therapeutic techniques and procedures Emotional TechniquesRational-emotional imageryImagine the worst things that could happen to themRole playingShame-attacking exercisesTake a risk to do something that they are afraid to do because of what others might think…until they realize that their feelings of shame are self-created.Use of force and vigorFrom intellectual to emotional insightReverse role playing
18 Therapeutic techniques and procedures Behavioral TechniquesUse most of the standard behavioral therapy approaches.Research EffortsMost studies focus only on cognitive methods and do not consider emotive and behavioral methods.
19 Applications of REBTREBT has been widely applied to several areas: anxiety, depression, psychotic disorders, problems of sex, love, and marriage, crisis, couple and family therapy…
20 Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Therapy (CT) Insight-focused therapyEmphasizes changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefsTheoretical AssumptionsPeople’s internal communication is accessible to introspectionClients’ beliefs have highly personal meaningsThese meanings can be discovered by the client rather than being taught or interpreted by the therapist
21 Theory, Goals & Principles of CT Basic theory:To understand the nature of an emotional episode or disturbance it is essential to focus on the cognitive content of an individual’s reaction to the upsetting event or stream of thoughtsGoals:To change the way clients think by using their automatic thoughts to reach the core schemata and begin to introduce the idea of schema restructuringPrinciples:Observe automatic thoughts, identify cognitive distortions, and ask for evidences for reality testing the cognitive distortions
22 CT’s Cognitive Distortions Arbitrary inferencesMaking conclusions without supporting and relevant evidenceSelective abstractionForming conclusions based on an isolated detail of an eventOvergeneralizationBased on one single incident and applying them to dissimilar events
23 CT’s Cognitive Distortions Magnification and minimizationPerceiving a case or situation in a greater or lesser light than it truly deservesPersonalizationRelate external events to themselves even when there is no basis for the connection.Labeling and mislabelingPortraying one’s identity on the basis of imperfections or mistakes made in the pastPolarized thinkingThinking in all-or-nothing terms
24 The Client-Therapist Relationship Therapeutic relationship is necessary, but not sufficient, to produce therapeutic effect.Encourage clients to take an active role in self-discovery.Aim to teach client how to be their own therapist, educate clients about the nature of their problem, about the process of cognitive therapy, and how thoughts influence their emotions and behaviors.\Use homework to test their beliefs in daily-life situations
25 CT’s Cognitive Triad Pattern that triggers depression: 1. Client holds negative view of themselves and blames themselves2. Selective abstraction: Client has tendency to interpret experiences in a negative manner3. Client has a gloomy vision and projections about the future
26 Application of CT Treatment of depression and anxiety Managing stress, in parent training, and in treating various clinical disorders
27 Donald Meichenbaum’s Cognitive Behavior Modification (CBM) Focus:Changing client’s self-verbalizations or self-statementsPremise:As a prerequisite to behavior change, clients must notice how they think, feel, and behave, and what impact they have on othersBasic assumption:Distressing emotions are typically the result of maladaptive thoughts
28 Meichenbaum’s CBM Self-instructional therapy focus: Trains clients to modify the instructions they give to themselves so that they can copeEmphasis is on acquiring practical coping skillsCognitive structure:The organizing aspect of thinking, which seems to monitor and direct the choice of thoughtsThe “executive processor,” which “holds the blueprints of thinking” that determine when to continue, interrupt, or change thinking
29 How Behavior Changes? 3 Phases of Behavior Change 1. Self-observation Listen to themselves, realize they contribute to their depression through how they think, and develop new cognitive structures2. Starting a new internal dialogueSee adaptive behavioral alternatives3. Learning new skillsTeaching more effective coping skills
30 Coping Skills Programs Coping skills programs – Stress inoculation training (3 phase model)1. The conceptual phaseCreating a working relationship with clients2. Skills acquisition and rehearsal phaseGiving coping skills to apply to stressful situations3. Application and follow-through phaseTransfer change to real world
31 From a multicultural perspective ContributionsDiverse populationsappreciate the emphasis on cognition and actionsChallenge rigid thinking (e.g., “should”) instead of questioning the valuesStress the relationship of individuals to the family, community, and systems
32 From a multicultural perspective LimitationsExploring core beliefs is important in CBT-needs to sensitive to cultural background and contextValue “working hard”feel ashamed for not living up to the expectations; divorcebring shame to her familyDiverse clients may be hesitant to question their basic cultural valuesDiverse clients may value interdependence and may feel difficult to be independent
33 Summary and Evaluation ContributionsREBT: focus on how we interpret and react to the events; put insight into action; teach clients ways to carry out their own therapy without depending on therapistsCT: research support that CT is as empirically validated treatment; focus on a detailed case conceptualization to understand clients; is an eclectic psychotherapy
34 Summary and Evaluation LimitationsEllis: being too confrontational; ignoring “past”; power imbalanceCT: focusing too much on positive thinking, being too simplistic, denying past, being too technique-oriented, failing to use the therapeutic relationship, working only to reduce symptoms, failing to explore the underlying causes of difficulties, ignoring unconscious factors and emotions.