Presentation on theme: "Social Structure And Social Interaction. What is Sociology? Systematic, scientific study of human society scientific evidence Relies on scientific evidence—helps."— Presentation transcript:
What is Sociology? Systematic, scientific study of human society scientific evidence Relies on scientific evidence—helps straighten out myths vs. realities We learn more about ourselves by studying others social marginality BUT learn more from social marginality – being excluded from main-stream society (“outsiders”)
Social Class Social Class: A system of ranking people into abstract categories of social positions
Scientific Method Observations Hypothesis Testing Theory
Sociological Imagination social forces Sociology studies “from the outside” versus “from the inside” (Psych.) to explain social forces – forces that arise from society in which we are a part we see it through behavior Example: People in wide-open areas more likely to commit suicide. Why? social forces We have to use our sociological imagination can’t look at individual personalities, but at the social forces.
Social Integration social integration The degree to which people are tied to a social group – social integration Therefore, inadequate levels of integration = high suicide rate (different in other cultures, though) We are each other’s sociological backbone!
History of Sociology 19 th century, because of Industrial Revolution – brought new ways of living together Then French Revolution – people questioning legitimacy of monarchies; wanted more freedoms Grew because of social unrest of this time
AUGUSTE COMTE Father of Sociology 3 stages Religious Metaphysical Scientific
Auguste Comte, Part II Said a science of society has 2 branches: 1. Statics 1. Statics – study of organization that allows societies to endure 2. Dynamics 2. Dynamics – study of processes by which societies change
Herbert Spencer Thought society can be compared to a living organism Each part of animal has own function, but all parts are interdependent Also says if society is left alone, it fixes its own problems
KARL MARX class conflict Says main feature of sociology is class conflict – struggle between capitalists and proletariats Did not believe in natural selection – urged people to change society, not let it evolve
Emile Durkheim Pioneered scientific method application to Sociology Really studied suicide and the “social facts”
MAX WEBER Verstehen Thought one must go beyond observations & find out how people feel about their own behavior - Verstehen
Fundamentals Theoretical perspectives Theoretical perspectives – sets of general assumptions about nature of society Functionalist perspective Functionalist perspective – focuses on social order; each part of society performs as the whole, interdependently social consensus If something happens to this social order, a social consensus must be made for this new change
The Good and the Bad conflicts Society does change, but only for a reason conflicts conflict perspective When status quo is criticized, everyone starts to focus on differences & emphasizes their group is better than others – conflict perspective Society is always changing because of this competition
SPORTS!!! BENEFICIAL HARMFUL Conducive to success in other areas of life Develops skill, ability, self- discipline, mental alertness, physical fitness Enhances health & happiness Contributes to social order & stability through unification Sports act as an opiate, numbing the masses sense of dissatisfaction w/capitalist society Reinforces social, gender, & racial inequalities Big business – elitist system “Man’s world” – glorifies masculinity
Wrap-Up Sociology can help enrich our lives intellectual exercise, general guide, pursue careers, & just obtain a better understanding of the world through our own interpretations The world around us affects our lives more than what the world does to us.