Presentation on theme: "The Sociological Perspective"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Sociological Perspective Chapter 1Mr. Porter
2 3 Questions Should sociologists try to reform society? What are the 3 perspectives, which do you prefer and why?What’s the difference between macro and micro approaches in sociology? Which is the best to explain social life and why?
3 Seeing the Broader Social Context How groups influence peopleHow people are influenced by their societyPeople who share a culturePeople who share a territory
5 C. Wright Mills“The sociological perspective enables us to grasp the connection between history and biography.”History- society is located in a broad stream of events.
6 C. Wright Mills Biography- Individual specific experience External influence our experiencesThis becomes part of our thinking and motivation.
7 Growing Global Context Global VillageInstant CommunicationEveryone has different livesSociology studies both global network and our experience.
8 Sociology and other Sciences To satisfy the needs of humans in regards to the world around them, humans developed science.Sociology was developed by humans as a scientific study of society and human behavior.Sciences are divided into two categories (Natural Science and Social Sciences)
9 Natural ScienceIntellectual and academic disciplines designed to explain and predict the events in our natural environmentBiologyGeologyChemistryPhysics
10 Social SciencesSocial Sciences examine the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to understand the social world objectively by means of controlled and repeated observations.AnthropologyEconomicsPolitical SciencePsychologySociology
11 Anthropology Anthropology- Study of Cultures (4 Types) Cultural AnthropologyArcheologyPhysical/Biological AnthropologyLinguistic Anthropology
12 EconomicsEconomics- Studies the production and distribution of goods and services.Examine what goods are being produced, cost and distributedStudy why people purchase certain items rather than others
13 Political SciencePolitical Sci- the study how people govern themselves.PoliticsGovernmentConsequences of breaking rules
14 Psychology Psychology- The study of processes within individuals. Focus on mental processExamine intelligence, emotions, perception, memory and dreams
15 SociologySimilar to the other sciences (study culture like anthropology, study goods and services like economics)Sociologists look at how people of different backgrounds look at the same information.
16 The Goal of Science Explain why things happen To make generalizations Look for patternsGo beyond what as seen as common sense
17 Origins of SociologyFor centuries people tried to figure out social life.By the mid 1800’s people began to apply science methodsAs the Industrial Revolution came about, people began to study the problems with society.Sociology grew out of social upheavalScientific Method- using objective, systematic observations to test theories
18 Auguste Comte & Positivism Applying the scientific method to the social world.What creates social order?As one society sets in a course, how does it change?Applied scientific method and coined it sociology.
19 Herbert Spenser & Social Darwinism Disagreed with ComteBelieved societies evolve from lower to higher.Most capable in society will surviveHelp the poor will only interfere with the process“Survival of the Fittest”
20 Karl Marx & Class Conflict Engine of human history is class conflict.Bourgeoisis vs ProletariatMarxism is not the same as Communism.Marx did not think of himself as a Sociologist.One of 3 greatest thinkers in history
21 Emile Durkheim & Social Integration Able to get sociology recognized as separate academic discipline.Social forces affect behavior.Identified Social Integration- degree to which people feel part of a social group.
22 Max Weber & Protestant Ethic Disagreed with Marx’s claim that economics central force in social change.Religion (Prostestants) brought the rise of capitalism.Still debated about today.
23 Values in Sociological Research Weber pushed for sociology should be value free.Weber felt that sociology should be objective.Researchers should involve replication.Wide variety of uses for sociologyUsed to help human suffering (Social Reform)Some feel it should be used for any purposeUsed to describe events not to place judgment
24 Weber uses Verstehen Verstehen- “To grasp by insight” Durkheim Understand subjective meaning (way people interpret their own behavior)DurkheimStressed Social Facts (group patterns of behavior)Use social facts to interpret social factsHow social facts and verstehen work together
25 Females in Sociology Harriet Martineau (1802-1876) Born into a wealthy family, she began analyzing social life while keeping it a secret.Studied in both the U.S. and the U.K.Published Society in AmericaHer work was ignored
26 Sociology in North America Sociology can be traced to Univ. of Kansas, Univ. of Chicago & Atlanta Univ. late 1800’sMany women work as social workers rather than sociologist (Not like today’s social worker)
27 Jane Addams & Social Reform Born into wealth and privilegeAttended The Women's Medical College of PhiladelphiaShe was inspired by what was being done for the poor in London1889, she founded the Hull-House in Chicago
28 W.E.B. Du Bois & Race Relations First African American to earn a HarvardWrote over 2,000 writings on white and black relations fromFounded the NAACPUntil recently, his writings were rejected by sociology
29 Sociology Through the Years Early North American sociologists combined the role of sociologist w/ social reformerBy the 1940’s, Talcott Parsons developed models on how society works together which did nothing to promote social activismMills pushed for Sociologists to get back to promoting social reformMills found that the power elite was imminent threat to our freedom.
30 Tension & Rise of Applied Sociology Micro Level- Looks at family and relationshipsMacro Level- Looks at outside sources such as crime and pollutionApplied Sociology- The use of sociology to solve problems in society either macro or micro levels.NAACPPornographyAIDS
31 3 Major Theories 1. Symbolic Interactionism 2. Functional Analysis 3. Conflict Theory
32 Symbolic Interactionism Theory that society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another.George Herbert Mead is considered one of the founders to symbolic interactionism.
33 Applying Symbolic Interactionism George H. MeadWe use symbols to attach meaning1. Emotional Satisfaction2. The Love Symbol3. The Meaning of Children4. The Meaning of Parenthood5. Marital Roles6. Perception of Alternatives7. The Meaning of Divorce8. Changes in the Law
34 Functional AnalysisTheoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibrium.These functions can be either manifest or latent.
35 Applying Functional Analysis 1. Economic Production2. Socialization of Children3. Care of the Sick and Elderly4. Recreation5. Sexual Control6. Reproduction
36 Conflict Theory Founded by Karl Marx Theory in which society is viewed as composed of groups competing for scarce resources.Human history as a class struggle (bourgeoisie & proletariat)
37 Conflict Theory Cont.Today its used in a broader sense, used in all relations that deal with authority.Today it can be seen such as Feminists and equal rights to men.Applying it today with the changes in our society.Compare the Divorce Rate and how times have changed.
38 Difference Between the Theories Level of analysis.Functionalists and Conflict Theorists are more focused on Marco Level.Symbolic Interactionists more focused on Micro Level, on Social Interaction.Symbolic would focus on nonverbal interactions.
39 Sociology in GeneralPhase 1 to improve society (lasted until the 1920’s)Phase 2 to make sociology a better field of knowledge (1920’s- early 1940’s)Phase 3 to apply research and findings through the development of applied sociology (1940’s to present day).
40 Trends of the FutureGlobalization- the extensive interconnections among nations due to the expansion of capitalism.The focus is more than just the U.S. but rather now global issues.Looking at Globalization of Capitalism in which capitalism is the globes dominant economic system.