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Respiratory Tract Infections

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Presentation on theme: "Respiratory Tract Infections"— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiratory Tract Infections
Dr. Muhammad Atif Qureshi MBBS, FCPS Associate Professor Medicine

2 Infections of Respiratory Tract
Pharyngitis Laryngitis Tracheitis Bronchitis Alveolitis Pneumonia Tuberculosis Aspergilosis

3 Laryngitis Clinical features Weak or loss of voice Hoarseness
Rawness in throat or tickling sensation Dry cough Dry throat Sore throat





8 Laryngitis – Acute causes
The majority of laryngitis cases is only temporary and gets better when the underlying illness improves. Vocal straining Viral infections – common cold mumps or measles Bacterial infections Diphtheria

9 Laryngitis – Chronic causes
Cases of laryngitis that last more than 3 weeks . Vocal cord injuries or strain as well as vocal cord growths referred to as nodules or polyps. Irritants inhaled - chemical allergens, fumes or smoke Chronic Sinusitis GERD Alcohol Smoking Habitual vocal overuse – such as cheerleaders or singers Fungal, bacterial infections The risk issues for laryngitis consist of: Respiratory infection - bronchitis, a cold or sinusitis Overuse of the voice Exposure to irritants - alcohol, cigarette smoke, stomach acid, or workplace chemicals

10 Laryngitis Treatment Acute viral Laryngitis usually becomes better on its own in 7 days. Treatments for chronic laryngitis – treat cause- smoking, excessive alcohol or heartburn. Antibiotics In viral laryngitis, antibiotics not very effective. But bacterial infection usually need antibiotics. Corticosteroids Corticosteroids may reduce inflammation of vocal cords. But, only if very urgent need to treat laryngitis.

11 Treatment-Home Remedies
Breathing of moist air Humidifier. Rest the voice as much as conceivable Avoid singing or talking too long or too loudly. Drink lots of fluids Avoid caffeine and alcohol Keep the throat moist Do this by sucking on a lozenge, chewing gum or gargling with salt water. Avoid using decongestants These drugs dry the throat out. Avoid whispering This places more straining of the voice than speech that is normal

12 Laryngitis-Complications
Laryngeal edema

13 Tracheitis

14 Tracheitis- causes Viral infections Streptococcus pneumonia
Haemophilus influenza Moraxella catarrhalis

15 Tracheitis- Clinical Features
Usually follow an upper respiratory infection, initial symptoms such as cough, runny nose, or a low-grade fever may appear. After two to five days, symptoms of infection and airway obstruction may develop. These symptoms may include: Deep, severe cough Breathlessness High fever Wheezing Cyanosis Stridor - A high-pitched sound while breathing can be a sign of serious infection and represents partial airway obstruction, a potentially fatal condition. 

16 Tracheitis - Diagnosis
Physical examination Blood oxygen level Nasopharyngeal culture Tracheal culture X-ray of the trachea

17 Acute Tracheitis: Complications
Review possible medical complications related to Acute Tracheitis: Airway obstruction Toxic shock syndrome more complications

18 Acute Bronchitis Clinical Features Diagnosis Treatment



21 Chronic Bronchitis Clinical features Diagnosis Treatment


23 Pneumonia Bronchopneumonia Lobar pneumonia

24 Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)
Pneumonia in persons who have not recently been hospitalized. Can affect all ages. CAP occurs throughout the world and is a leading cause of illness and death. Causes of CAP include bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.


26 Causes of pneumonia H. influenza S. pneumonae Klebsiella Pneumonae


28 Symptoms of CAP Dyspnea Cough with greenish or yellow sputum
High grade fever with sweating, chills, and rigors Sharp or stabbing chest pain increased by breathing Less commonly: Hemoptysis Headache Anorexia excessive fatigue Cyanosis Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea Arthralgias and muscle aches

29 Symptoms of CAP commonly include:
In older people typical symptoms may not be present early in disease : New or worsening confusion Hypothermia Overly sleepy

30 Risk factors Some people have a high risk Obstruction - foreign bodies especially in infants or lung cancer in elders. Underlying lung diseases - emphysema, smoking, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary sequestration. Immunocompromised people are more likely to get CAP, like AIDS etc.

31 Diagnosis Symptoms on history Signs on physical examination
Laboratory investigations Blood counts Arterial blood gases X-ray chest VQ-scan CT scan Blood cultures





36 Chest auscultation









45 Ventilation perfusion scan


47 Treatment General management Rest Antipyretics Pain relief Oxygen
Cough syrups Oral or intravenous antibiotics

48 Treatment Macrolides Flouroquinolones
Doxycline first choice in UK for atypical pneumonias



51 Complications SEPSIS Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause. Individuals with sepsis require hospitalization in an intensive care unit, i.v. antibiotics. Sepsis can cause liver, kidney, and heart damage. RESPIRATORY FAILURE May need mechanical ventilation PLEURAL EFFUSION AND EMPYEMA Thoracocentesis Chest tube insertion Lung Abscess

52 Pulse oxymetry

53 Prognosis Mortality in CAP less than 1%.
Fever typically responds in the first two days of therapy and other symptoms resolve in the first week. The x-ray, may remain abnormal for at least a month. Among individuals hospitalized, the mortality rate averages 12% overall, but is as much as 40% in people who have bacterimia and septicemia or require intensive care.



56 Thank You

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