8 Laryngitis – Acute causes The majority of laryngitis cases is only temporary and gets better when the underlying illness improves.Vocal strainingViral infections – common coldmumps or measlesBacterial infectionsDiphtheria
9 Laryngitis – Chronic causes Cases of laryngitis that last more than 3 weeks .Vocal cord injuries or strain as well as vocal cord growths referred to as nodules or polyps.Irritants inhaled - chemical allergens, fumes or smokeChronic SinusitisGERDAlcoholSmokingHabitual vocal overuse – such as cheerleaders or singersFungal, bacterial infectionsThe risk issues for laryngitis consist of:Respiratory infection - bronchitis, a cold or sinusitisOveruse of the voiceExposure to irritants - alcohol, cigarette smoke, stomach acid, or workplace chemicals
10 Laryngitis TreatmentAcute viral Laryngitis usually becomes better on its own in 7 days.Treatments for chronic laryngitis – treat cause- smoking, excessive alcohol or heartburn.AntibioticsIn viral laryngitis, antibiotics not very effective.But bacterial infection usually need antibiotics.CorticosteroidsCorticosteroids may reduce inflammation of vocal cords. But, only if very urgent need to treat laryngitis.
11 Treatment-Home Remedies Breathing of moist airHumidifier.Rest the voice as much as conceivableAvoid singing or talking too long or too loudly.Drink lots of fluidsAvoid caffeine and alcoholKeep the throat moistDo this by sucking on a lozenge, chewing gum or gargling with salt water.Avoid using decongestantsThese drugs dry the throat out.Avoid whisperingThis places more straining of the voice than speech that is normal
15 Tracheitis- Clinical Features Usually follow an upper respiratory infection, initial symptoms such as cough, runny nose, or a low-grade fever may appear.After two to five days, symptoms of infection and airway obstruction may develop. These symptoms may include:Deep, severe coughBreathlessnessHigh feverWheezingCyanosisStridor - A high-pitched sound while breathing can be a sign of serious infection and represents partial airway obstruction, a potentially fatal condition.
16 Tracheitis - Diagnosis Physical examinationBlood oxygen levelNasopharyngeal cultureTracheal cultureX-ray of the trachea
17 Acute Tracheitis: Complications Review possible medical complications related to Acute Tracheitis:Airway obstructionToxic shock syndromemore complications
24 Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) Pneumonia in persons who have not recently been hospitalized.Can affect all ages.CAP occurs throughout the world and is a leading cause of illness and death.Causes of CAP include bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.
28 Symptoms of CAP Dyspnea Cough with greenish or yellow sputum High grade fever with sweating, chills, and rigorsSharp or stabbing chest pain increased by breathingLess commonly:HemoptysisHeadacheAnorexiaexcessive fatigueCyanosisNausea and vomitingDiarrheaArthralgias and muscle aches
29 Symptoms of CAP commonly include: In older people typical symptoms may not be present early in disease :New or worsening confusionHypothermiaOverly sleepy
30 Risk factorsSome people have a high riskObstruction - foreign bodies especially in infants or lung cancer in elders.Underlying lung diseases - emphysema, smoking, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary sequestration.Immunocompromised people are more likely to get CAP, like AIDS etc.
31 Diagnosis Symptoms on history Signs on physical examination Laboratory investigationsBlood countsArterial blood gasesX-ray chestVQ-scanCT scanBlood cultures
51 ComplicationsSEPSISStreptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause.Individuals with sepsis require hospitalization in an intensive care unit, i.v. antibiotics. Sepsis can cause liver, kidney, and heart damage.RESPIRATORY FAILUREMay need mechanical ventilationPLEURAL EFFUSION AND EMPYEMAThoracocentesisChest tube insertionLung Abscess
53 Prognosis Mortality in CAP less than 1%. Fever typically responds in the first two days of therapy and other symptoms resolve in the first week.The x-ray, may remain abnormal for at least a month.Among individuals hospitalized, the mortality rate averages 12% overall, but is as much as 40% in people who have bacterimia and septicemia or require intensive care.