Presentation on theme: "Canada Regions Quest for National Identity. Canada Vast land that covers most of the northern half of North America Shares many physical characteristics."— Presentation transcript:
Canada Vast land that covers most of the northern half of North America Shares many physical characteristics with USA Examples: Appalachian Mountains, Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes, St. Lawrence River, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Unique cultural characteristics (in Quebec they speak French and some want to break away from Canada), opportunities, and challenges
10 Provinces/Territories The provinces/territories are political divisions 4 regions 1. Atlantic Provinces (sometimes called the maritime provinces) 2. Core Provinces 3. Prairie Provinces 4. Pacific Provinces and Territories
The Atlantic Provinces Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick. These border the Atlantic Ocean Part of the Appalachian Mountains. Rolling hills; thousands of lakes and ponds; humid continental and subarctic; mixed deciduous forest and coniferous forest. Glaciers moved across the area, leaving soil, strewn rocks and boulders.
Links to the Sea Hundreds of bays and inlets – excellent harbors for fishing fleets. Most residents live along the coast. Smallest of Canada's regions – 5% of Canada's land – 8% of its population
Economic Activities Was once the worlds richest fishing area Overfishing has led to limits on the number of fish that can be caught. Forestry and farming also important. Today – tourism is increasing, and newly found off-shore oil.
Province of Quebec and Ontario = the heartland of Canada Distinguished by three distinct landscapes 1.Canadian shield – poor soil, cold climate, but rich in mineral deposits. It covers most of Quebec and Ontario. 2.Hudson Bay Lowlands – flat, sparsely populated, swampy region between the Canadian Shield and Hudson Bay.
3. The St. Lawrence Lowlands – rich soil, mild climate. 60% of Canada's population lives in this region.
Characteristics Of Ontario Most important feature – system of waterways. St. Lawrence Seaway – connects the St. Lawrence River with the Great Lakes. (“Canada's highway to the sea”) Great Lakes differ in elevation. Lake Superior – 600 feet above sea level Lake Ontario – 245 feet above sea level. The system has a series of locks LOCK – enclosed area on a canal that raises or lowers ships from one water level to another.
Ontario continued… Ontario has rich soil, and abundant mineral resources. Southeastern part – farming, most people live here, manufacturing area (cars, food products, clothing, building materials) Toronto capital of Ontario largest metropolitan area in Canada. Ottawa – national capital of Canada
Quebec Largest province in Canada in terms of area – population not evenly distributed. Most live around the St Lawrence river valley – few on the Canadian Shield. Canadian Shield – covers 4/5’s of the province. bedrock – solid rock that is usually covered with soil, gravel, sand. forest, rivers, lakes, streams; treeless tundra in the very north
Southeastern border – Appalachian Mountains Center for mining and forestry Montreal – largest city on the Quebec province Quebec – oldest city in Canada Founded in 1608 – Samuel de Champlain.
The Prairie Provinces Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan Southwestern Canada – between the Rocky Mountains and the Canadian Shield. Associated with rolling fields of wheat, clear cool lakes, rivers, and mysterious badlands filled with strange, eroded sand and rock formations.
Patterns of Settlement 50% + live in cities. Largest cities are located at strategic points along the railroads that were built in the late 1800’s. Winnipeg – established at an important river crossing as railroad tracks were laid from the east through the Canadian Shield. Edmonton, Alberta – established at points where each rail line headed into mountains.
Economic Activities Prairie Provinces – provide most of Canada's grain and cattle. Wheat – transported by rail to ports on the Pacific Ocean, the Great Lakes, and the Hudson Bay. Tourism – national parks. In Alberta, oil was discovered = new source of wealth for the region.
Pacific Provinces and Territories British Columbia is Canada’s western most province. Mountain ranges cover nearly all of British Columbia. 80% of the population live in Vancouver. Plentiful natural resources – salmon, forest, and minerals One of Canada's wealthiest regions. Victoria, the capital – southeastern tip of Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Continued… The province largest city Excellent harbor – mild/wet marine west coast climate. Canada’s major port on the Pacific Ocean. Trade with Asia has increased – immigration from Asia also.
The Territories Yukon Territory, Northwest Territory, and Nunavut. Nunavut – established in 1999. It was a part of the Northwest Territory – claimed settlement with the Native Americans. Cold treeless lands, sparsely settled fewer than 1% of Canada’s population.
Majority of the population – Inuit = “the people”. Inuit – live north of the forest Contact with Europeans – seal hunting still an important economic activity, modern hunters use snow mobiles instead of dog sleds. Modern technology – student’s attending classes transmitted via satellite/TV/radio.
Rich deposits of minerals – gold, silver, copper, zinc, lead, iron ore, uranium, oil, and natural gas Mid 1980’s – an oil pipeline was built to deliver oil to southern markets. Many deposits have not been developed because of the harsh environment.