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Kansas City Air Quality, Emissions, and Strategies Douglas Watson Kansas Department of Health and Environment Bureau of Air and Radiation January 10, 2006
Ground-Level Ozone Chemically identical to ozone in upper atmosphere Ground level ozone primarily result of man’s activities Ground level Ozone formed by chemical reaction of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)
More Ground level Ozone VOCs and NOX come from cars, trucks, small businesses, utilities & large industry Ozone concentrations typically high on hot, sunny days with light winds Can trigger breathing problems, esp. in those who have asthma, emphysema, or other respiratory conditions
Even More Ground-Level Ozone Chemical formula – O 3 VOCs + NOx + heat + sunlight → O 3 Ambient ozone concentration results from background, transported in, and homegrown
8-Hour Ozone Standard Health-based standard issued in 1997 Court challenge delayed implementation Better accounts for prolonged exposures 8-Hour standard = 0.084 ppm (84 ppb) Form of the standard: 4 th high 8-hour daily maximum for each year Values are averaged over three years Each year, oldest year value is dropped and new year added
8-Hour Ozone Standard Design Value for a MSA (Metropolitan Statistical Area) is the highest value from all sites. Violation occurs if three-year average of fourth highest daily maximum 8-hour ozone exceeds 84 ppb Kansas City would have violated standard in 1999, 2000 & 2002
KC Region Ozone History From mid-1970s through early 1990s, KC metro area did not meet EPA standard In 1992, area was redesignated attainment for 1-hr ozone standard Area violated 1-hr standard in mid-1990s Area has met the 1-hour standard in 2000s
Variables in the KC Ozone Equation Weather Emission Reductions/Increases Clean Air Interstate Rule Tier 2 Vehicle and fuels rule Heavy Duty Diesel rule Regional Haze rule Voluntary programs Flint Hills burning emissions Weather
Emissions Source Categories Point: Permitted sources of pollutant emissions. Area: Sources below the permit cutoffs: dry cleaners, auto body painting, house painting and solvent use. Mobile On-road and Off-road: autos, trucks, planes, trains, construction, farm equipment & lawn and garden equip.
2002 Kansas VOC Emissions
2002 Kansas City Area VOC Emissions
2002 Johnson Co VOC Emissions
2002 Kansas NOx Emissions
2002 Kansas City Area NOx Emissions
Kansas 2002 Non-Road VOC Emissions
Current Status EPA designated region attainment in May 2005 Largely a fluke of the weather – record cool summer in 2004 History and modeling suggests likelihood of violation in future if no action taken Voluntary effort underway
Clean Air Action Plan Coordinated by MARC Developed in 2004 Comprehensive voluntary plan for reducing emissions Targets both stationary and mobile sources Short-, intermediate- and long-term measures
Emission Reduction Possibilities Point source NOx emissions Reduce automobile miles traveled On-road Heavy Duty Diesel retrofits Idle reduction for diesel engines Construction Equipment Railroad alternative power units Lawn and Garden VOC solvent emissions
Public Education MARC’s annual regional public awareness campaign Local government ozone reduction programs AirQ Workplace Initiative Pollution prevention workshops for small businesses
Future Activities Another episode of photochemical modeling Modify 1-hour State Implementation Plan (SIP) to include 8-hour provisions Implement voluntary strategies Prepare 8-hour maintenance plan Inventory growth and comparison Contingency measures and triggers
Economic impacts + In nonattainment areas, new or expanding businesses that release air pollution must apply the most stringent and costly controls available. In addition, they must offset any increased pollution by reducing equivalent pollution from other sources in the nonattainment area. These requirements mean increased costs, less likelihood of investment in new facilities, and a compromised economic climate for business growth.
If a source wishes to locate or expand in a nonattainment area, federal law requires that large projects go through what is known as nonattainment new source review (NSR). Nonattainment area new source review sometimes requires more strict emission controls than permits in attainment areas and also requires the applicant to obtain reductions in emissions from other sources within the same nonattainment area. This is known as the “emission offset” requirement. Sources may choose to accept lower limits on allowable emissions in order to avoid these requirements. Unless a source wishes to expand its operation and/or requests a revised emission limit, there is no impact on existing permits when a county goes from attainment to nonattainment. How does nonattainment designation affect permitting?
Transportation conformity requires a nonattainment area to demonstrate that the estimated emissions from long range transportation plans do not exceed the estimated emissions level needed to attain and maintain the NAAQS. Economic Impacts (con’t.)
A recent Minnesota Chamber of Commerce study estimated that nonattainment would cost the St. Paul- Minneapolis metropolitan area $189 million to $266 million annually, and one could expect costs in the Kansas City region to be of comparable magnitude.
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