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**Measurement Systems & Industrial Applications**

Industrial Skills Measurement Systems & Industrial Applications

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**Measurement Systems The English System (Customary System)**

The basic unit of linear measure is the inch. Two ways to subdivide the inch Common Fractions Divide the inch into 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 parts. Fractions written as 1/2”, 1/4”, 1/8”, 1/16”, 1/32” & 1/64” Decimal Fractions Divide the inch into 10, 100 and 1,000 parts. Fractions written as 0.10”, 0.01” and 0.001” Area measurements utilize linear measurements that have been squared. (Length x Width) Solid volume measurements utilize linear measurements that have been cubed. (L x W x Height)

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**Measurement Systems The Metric System (International System)**

The basic unit of linear measure is the meter. The meter is divided into smaller parts to provide a system of precision measurement. Based on a decimal system (powers of ten). Calculations and communication simplified by using a standardized set of prefixes or divisions. Milli = = 1 millimeter Centi = = 1 centimeter Deci = = 1 decimeter Meter = = 1 Meter Kilo = = 1 Kilometer = Meters Area measurements utilize linear measurements that have been squared. Solid volume measurements utilize linear measurements that have been cubed.

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**Always indicate the unit of measurement when writing or discussing measurements.**

12 inches = 1 foot feet = 1 yard Inch(es) abbreviated as in. or “. Foot (Feet) abbreviated as ft. or ‘. Yard(s) abbreviated as yd. Mile(s) not abbreviated. 1 Statute Mile = 5,280 feet 1000 mm = 100 cm = 10 dm = 1 M Millimeter(s) abbreviated as mm. Centimeter(s) abbreviated as cm. Decimeter(s) abbreviated as dm. Meter(s) abbreviated as m or M. Kilometer(s) abbreviated as Km 1 Kilometer = Meters

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**Conversions English to Metric Metric to English 1 inch = 25.4 mm**

or cm 1 fluid ounce = liter 1 U.S. Gallon = liters 1 pound (16 ounces) = grams or kilograms Metric to English 1 meter = ft. or inches 1 liter = gallon or fluid ounces 1 gram = ounces 1 kilogram = pounds

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**Industrial Applications: Reading a Customary Rule**

A common fractional scale divided into one-sixteenth-of-an-inch increments. Zero is the starting point – the point where there is no length.

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**Customary Rule: Continued**

Common fractions do not necessarily provide a great deal of accuracy. More accuracy may be obtained by using a rule divided into one-thirty-second- or one-sixty-fourth-of-an-inch increments. The decimal fraction system provides more accuracy than the common fraction.

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**Customary Rule: Continued**

A decimal fraction scale is divided into one-tenth and one-hundredth-of-an-inch increments. Decimal fractions divide the inch into 10, 100 and 1,000 parts. These fractions are always written or stated as decimals: 0.10” ” ”

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**Industrial Applications: Reading a Metric Rule**

A metric scale divided into one millimeter increments is shown to the left. Some metric scales – such as the one shown above (lower scale) may be marked in 0.5 mm increments.

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**Calculations: Area A Two-Dimensional Quantity**

Area measurements utilize linear measurements to calculate the number of unit squares within a given boundary. Measurements of area are expressed in “square units” such as square inches, square feet, square meters, etc. They have length and width but thickness is not considered in the calculations. Never mix units in the same calculation.

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**Calculations: Volume A Three-Dimensional Quantity**

Volume is the space an object occupies or the capacity of a container. Volume calculations combine three measurements: usually length, height, and depth or thickness. Volume is always expressed in “cubic units” such as cubic inches, cubic feet, cubic meters, etc. A variety of different volume formulas may be used, depending on the shape of the object. Check your handout for exact formulas. Never mix units in the same calculation.

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**Industrial Applications: Common Quantities and Conversions**

1 square foot = 144 square inches 1 square yard = 9 square feet = 1,296 sq. in. 1 cubic foot = 1,728 cubic inches 1 cubic yard = 27 cubic feet = 46,656 cu. in. 1 cubic foot = 7.47 gallons of water* 1 gallon of water = pounds*

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**Industrial Applications: Common Quantities and Conversions**

1 square centimeter = 100 square millimeters 1 square meter =10,000 sq.cm.=1,000,000 sq.mm 1 cubic meter = 1,000,000,000 cubic millimeters 1 cubic meter = 1,000 liters of water* 1 cubic meter = gallons of water* 1 liter of water = Kilogram*

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**MSC 124 Industrial Skills Introductory Exercise:**

Printer Paper Measurements Measurements vs Conversions

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A. Using the ruler given to you, measure the distances indicated. Use what you think is an appropriate measurement system. B. C. D. Estimate the square footage of the piece of paper you are using.

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A. = mm (21mm or 2.1cm) 13/16 inch 13 ÷ 16 = inches 1 inch = 25.4mm .8125 inches x 25.4mm = mm B. = ½ inch (12.5mm or 1.25cm) 1 ÷ 2 = .5 inches .5 inches x 25.4mm = 12.7mm C. = 3/16 inch 4.7625mm (5mm or .5cm) 3 ÷ 16 = inches .1875 inches x 25.4mm = mm D. = 13 5/8 inches 346mm (34.6cm) 5 ÷ 8 = .625 inches + 13 inches = inches inches x 25.4mm = mm 11” x ” = square inches ÷ 144 sq. in. = square feet

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**Convert 380 Feet to Meters. 115.825 Meters**

1 inch = 25.4 mm 1000mm ÷ 25.4 mm = inches inches ÷ 12 inches = Feet feet = 1 Meter 380 feet ÷ feet = Meters 380 feet ÷ 3.28 feet = Meters (-.029 Meters x inches = inches) 380 feet ÷ 3.2 feet = Meters ( Meters x inches = inches inches ÷ 12 inches = feet) 380 feet ÷ 3.3 feet = Meters (+.673 Meters x feet = feet) 380 feet ÷ 3 feet = Meters ( Meters x feet = feet)

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