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Market Structures.

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Presentation on theme: "Market Structures."— Presentation transcript:

1 Market Structures

2 Industry vs. Firm The INDUSTRY are all companies that compete with each other. The FIRM is an individual company. Sometimes firms act independently from the industry.

3 How do firms think? Firms think in:
The short run: the period of time long enough for producers to change one input to affect production The medium run: the period of time when you can change both capital and labor inputs The long run: the period of time in which you can change any and all inputs in production. These are hard to define by time, but easy to define by behavior.

4 How do firms behave? Market structure influences how a firm behaves regarding: Pricing Supply Barriers to Entry Efficiency Competition

5 Market Structures Based on degree of competition in the industry
High levels of competition: Perfect competition Limited competition: Monopoly Degrees of competition in between: imperfect (monopolistic/differentiated) competition, oligopoly

6 Determinants of Market Structure
Freedom of entry and exit Nature of the product – homogenous (identical), differentiated? Control over supply/output Control over price Barriers to entry

7 Market Structure Perfect Competition: Free entry and exit to industry
Homogenous product – identical so no consumer preference Large number of buyers and sellers – no individual seller can influence price Sellers are price takers – have to accept the market price Perfect information available to buyers and sellers

8 Market Structure Examples of perfect competition:
Financial markets – ex. stock exchange, currency markets, bond markets Agriculture Hot dog carts Ice Cream Trucks To what extent?

9 Market Structure Advantages of Perfect Competition:
High degree of competition helps allocate resources to most efficient use Price = marginal costs Normal profit made in the long run Firms operate at maximum efficiency Consumers benefit

10 Market Structure What happens in a competitive environment?
New idea? – firm makes short term economic profit Other firms enter the industry to take advantage of economic profit Supply increases – price falls Long run – normal profit made Choice for consumer Price sufficient for normal profit to be made but no more!




14 Market Structure Imperfect or Monopolistic Competition
Many buyers and sellers Products differentiated Relatively free entry and exit Each firm may have a tiny ‘monopoly’ because of the differentiation of their product Firm has some control over price Examples – restaurants, professions – lawyers, etc., building firms – plasterers, plumbers, etc.

15 MR

16 Market Structure Oligopoly – Competition amongst the few
Industry dominated by small number of large firms Many firms may make up the industry High barriers to entry Products could be highly differentiated – branding or homogenous Non–price competition Price stability within the market - kinked demand curve? Potential for collusion? Economic profits High degree of interdependence between firms

17 Market Structure Examples of oligopolistic structures: Supermarkets
Banking industry Chemicals Oil Medicinal drugs Broadcasting

18 Market Structure Measuring Oligopoly:
Concentration ratio – the proportion of market share accounted for by top X number of firms: E.g. 5 firm concentration ratio of 80% - means top 5 five firms account for 80% of market share 3 firm CR of 72% - top 3 firms account for 72% of market share

19 Market Structure Price Kinked Demand Curve D = elastic Kinked D Curve
£5 The intention of this slide is to demonstrate the principle of the kinked demand curve. The slide starts with the vertical and horizontal axes. A demand curve appears – relatively elastic and a price of £5 and q 100 appear. The explanation at this point would imply asking students what would happen if the producer increased price but nobody else in the industry followed? Hopefully students will see that the demand would fall significantly. By this stage students should be aware of the impact on total revenue as a result of this action. The next assumption rests on the firm facing an inelastic demand curve; in this case the firm believes that firms will follow suit in reducing price – the effect is to lead to only a small gain in sales – total revenue would again fall. Assuming the two characteristics would suggest a kinked demand curve and price stability existing in the industry with the likely outcome being non-price comptition. D = elastic Kinked D Curve D = Inelastic Quantity 100


21 Market Structure Duopoly:
Industry dominated by two large firms (ex. DC and Marvel, Intel and AMD) Possibility of price leader emerging – rival will follow price leaders pricing decisions High barriers to entry Economic profits likely

22 Market Structure Monopoly: Pure monopoly – industry is the firm!
Actual monopoly – where firm has >25% market share Natural Monopoly – high fixed costs – gas, electricity, water, telecommunications, rail

23 Market Structure Monopoly: High barriers to entry
Firm controls price OR output/supply Economic profits in long run Possibility of price discrimination Consumer choice limited Prices in excess of MC

24 Market Structure Advantages and disadvantages of monopoly: Advantages:
May be appropriate if natural monopoly Encourages R&D Encourages innovation Development of some products not likely without some guarantee of monopoly in production Economies of scale can be gained – consumer may benefit

25 Market Structure Disadvantages:
Exploitation of consumer – higher prices Potential for supply to be limited - less choice Potential for inefficiency – X-inefficiency – complacency over controls on costs



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