6 Glomerular filtration In a healthy adult about 650 ml of plasma (1200 ml of blood ) pass through functioning renal excretory tissue every minute, and about 125 ml of glomerular filtrate is formed.
7 Glomerular filtration Water passes freely from the plasma through the glomeruli , and those unbound constituents of the plasma that have a molecular weight of less than about 70,000 are present in the glomerular filtrate at the same concentration as in the plasma .
8 Glomerular filtration Substances of a higher molecular weight than about 70,000 do not pass freely through the glomeruli and are present in the glomerlar filtrate at a lower concentration than in plasma
10 Tubular effectThe renal tubules conserve water and soluble constituent of the body by reabsorption using both passive ( high conc. To low conc. )And the active transport ( use ATP + carrier ) from the glomerular filtrate.
11 Simple examination of the urine Volume :The normal 24 hours Urine volume of an adult is between 750 and 2000 ml .This depend onthe fluid intakeloss of fluid by other routes.
12 Simple examination of the urine In Disease :Oliguria :Urine output less than 500ml/dayCausese :deficient intake of water ,or excessive loss of fluid by other routes ,for example : by :haemorrhage ,diarrheavomiting
13 Simple examination of the urine PolyuriaUrine output more than 2000m/day.Physiological causeschronic renal insufficiency .Polyuria of low osmolality is also found in diabetes insipidusPolyuria occur as an osmotic diuresis in any disease where there is an increased excretion of metabolites (diabetes mellitus ).
14 Simple examination of the urine PolyuriaPhysiological causesExcessive water intakeDiuretic as tea, Cola, CoffeeExcessive salt intake
15 Simple examination of the urine Colour :Due to urinary pigments (urochromes).Pale (low specific gravity ) to dark yellow (high specific gravity)Coloured urines occur in :certain diseasemetabolic disorders,after the administration of many drugs:Beta carotine supplement ( orange urine )
16 Simple examination of the urine Appearance :Casts :The tubules secrete an α1-glycoprotein (Tamm-Horsfall protein ) , which , in the presence of albumin , comes out of solution in gel form as casts.
17 Simple examination of the urine Appearance :Mucus protein :This may be from semen or from vaginal discharge.Pathologically , it may be due to disease of the lower urinary tract or pus.
18 Simple examination of the urine Appearance :Crystals :These are not normally pathologicalUric acid ( reddish – yellow) & calcium oxalate (colourless ) from acid urinephosphate ( whitish) from alkaline urine .Pathologicalcystine crystalsdark reddish deposit of blood.
19 Simple examination of the urine Smell:unpleasant smell : urine infected with Gram-negative organisms .ammonical smell: urine infected with urea splitting organismsmaple syrup disease (H.W)
20 Simple examination of the urine pH:Normal between 5.5 and 8Alkalosis :Vegetarine dietBacterial infection
21 Simple examination of the urine Specific Gravity :normal specific gravity in 24 hour urine sample is between and 1.010Wt of the sample / Wt of the waterHigh urine volume ( low Sp.gravity )low urine volume ( high Sp.gravity )