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Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Managing Change – Overview What change? – A short case study Changing environment The Survey – step by step Ready for Change? Discussion
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Too much change? The case of Frankfurter Rundschau 1946 - 2013(?) Federal State Financial Guarantee (2003) – Saved from Insolvency through Political Party Media Holding (2004) – Consultants reduce staff from 1.650 to less than 1.000 people – Traditional Headquarters sold – Stylish new Headquarter / Newsroom – Relaunch – Changing Chief Editor – E-Paper – New Majority Stakeholder: Traditional Publishing House – Changing to Tabloid format – Re-Design – Re-Re-Design - Re- structuring local newsdesks – Higher subscription price – Closer cooperation with sister publications (Berlin, Cologne, Halle)– Ad Revenue -20,3 % (2009) – regional online ad website – Syndication with three dailies from same publisher – Pool of journalist – Staff agreement / no holiday or christmas bonus – More lay-offs – Reduction of local editions (5 to 3, changed again 2010) – Social Media - iPad – Reporter pool with sister publications – more losses 24,5 Mio. (2009), approx. 19 Mio. (2010) – structural losses 10 Mio. (2011 – 13) – Readers -30 % in 10 years – another 18 months lefts?
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Tabloid Format
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Facebook
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Twitter
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 App Economy (probably) the best App from a German newspaper 79 cent / day marketing still difficult
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Staff 20001.650 employees (Publishing / Printing) 20041.110 employees (new owner) 2006 730 employees (new majority stakeholder) 2009 540 employees (ad revenue – 20%) 2010 190 employees* mid2011 150 employees** * 30 outsourced journalist in Press Service (no collective agreement) 40 outsourced employees Publishing Service (production, no collective agreement) ** 90 journalist in three different companies (Berlin, Frankfurt, Online - no collective agreement)
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 2001 - 11 Total copies sold –36% Subscriptions –24% Newsstand –55% Source: IVW
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 German Unions
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 "Dollars always follow eyeballs" Online ad revenues 2010 Double-digit growth Leaving traditional media behind Online 26,0 Billion Dollar Newspapers 22,8 Billion Dollar Cable TV newtorks 22,5 Billion Dollar Broadcast TV netw.17,6 Billion Dollar Radio 15,3 Billion Dollar Mobile (iPhone, iPad...) 550 - 650 Mio. Dollar Online ads + 24% display ads (banners, digital video; market share 38% + 12 % search (text ads); market share 46% (Figures for USA; Source Interactive Advertising Bureau, IAB, 2011)
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 ProPublica Pulitzer Pulitzer Price (2010, 2011) Investigative Journalism Founded 2007 (Herb+ Marion Sandler) Funding 10 Mio. Dollar/ year 32 journalists (paid above average)
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Whats Changing? Whos Changing? The Market ? The Journalist / Skills? Workplace ? Quality? The (traditional) Publisher (turning controller)? The Reader (User, Audience) ? The Technology (Plattform, Channel) ? The Unions? Ad revenues? Profits? Margins? Journalism? Communication Process (Social Media) SPEED?
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Whats Changing? Whos Changing? Everything with an incredible SPEED.
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Change or Media Revolution? Everything with an incredible SPEED. Media revolution?... I believe this is a historically unfavourable phase for unflexible journalists? Sascha Lobo, German Blogger, Social Media Consultant
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Survey (6 Questions, March April 2011) Response 22 EFJ members from 18 countries participating Representing approx. 85 % of EFJ membership – but very few SEE countries Membership all organising employed journalist almost all organising freelance journalist most organise photographers about half accept members from public relations and communications many organise students, retired or jobless journalists... and a wide spectrum of other media workers...
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Wide spectrum – something with media? Some examples (professional) bloggers Archivars, documentarist All technical jobs (layouter, cutter, info graphics) Presenters, promoters, speakers,... All PR jobs Cartoonists Camera men (and women) Book editors Professors (of journalism) collaborati (= paid part time local journalists) Fashion potographers TV producers Computer game desigers... and a really wide spectrum all students all employees in media houses
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Wide spectrum – something with media? Different approaches Full-time, part-time (but professional), anything with media Presscard or membership card Registered professional journalists in news media Berufsregister (special professional register) No active / passive voting rights Restriction for certain services Change? Open membership to all media, differentiate core journalist members and other members – different rights, different services Questions: Solidarity, complexity, union character. adequate just fees?
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Fee systems – quite uniform Question 1.1 Fees ranging from 0 to 670 p.a. Smaller unions often make no difference Many unions take a percentage from salary / income ( 1% - 1,6%) Many unions have reductions for students, retired journalists... Some with two-layered fee system (uniform national / different regional fee) One union gives 25 % discount if annual fee is paid by Januar 31st Change? As membership is getting more and more diverse and expected services are more specialised - should there be a more differentiating fee system? Questions: Solidarity, complexity
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Service – quite the same for everybody Question 1.2 Most unions do not make a difference Exceptions: for students, retired journalists... Exception: Press card / legal assistance One union asked: Why service? Change: Balance between union, assocation, lobby organisation? Shift towards more targeted services? Future Profile? Change: Membership is getting more diverse, jobs and qualifications are very different, service needs (and expectations) are different – more diversification, member orientation, more community and online services
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Less time, less pay, more work, multi media Question 2.1 General pessimistic, impression of lower respect for journalistic work, lower estimation for journalists / quality journalism, notion of de-valuation of journalist; potential conflicts established journalists vs. newcomers / starters employed vs. freelances (fees: race to the bottom) speed vs. quality many specific answers for different media / countries
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Less time, less pay, more work, multi media Question 2.1 Reduction of staff, higher density of work, unpaid extra-hours Erosion of payment and social standards Stop of bargaining ord collective agreements (for years) Journalists and other media employees with same contract New forms of cooperation, outsourcing and fragmentation New forms of cooperation in newsrooms Voluntary work in Social Media (comment, blog, tweet....) Use and misuse of temporary work Online: difficult border between journalistic and technical tasks Journalists lost their old VIP-Status
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Not much for new members Question 2.2 Most unions do not have any special offers for new members Some give them some reading material Some rely on their website Few have special workshops, meetings or activities Nobody mentions social media / communities Change? targeted offers and activities for new members, mentoring programmes, networking
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 No clear picture employed & freelances Question 2.3 Growing number of freelancers (about 50% of membership?) Majority sees (some) problems Few see huge problems – even clashes Some expect ongoing good relations Many mention financial aspects Change? Mapping needed (know your membership statistics, know your members better), create opportunities (seminars) for exchange between employed & freelance journalists Change internal structures to serve growing number of freelances
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Membership criteria mainly unchanged Question 3.1 Hardly any changes (in theory) Comparison with the wide spectrum mentioned under Some minor changes (to attract more members) Change: Mapping needed: identify new forms of journalism; What profile? Danger of losing members to specialised assocations... photographers, freelances, etc.
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Recruitment– room for improvement Question 3.2 Large differences across Europe One or more unions in a country? Restricted membership? High degree of organisation – like in Nordic countries Sucees mainly with face-to-face contact (universities, seminars) Many unions with no special programmes, budgets, activities Some rely on a popular website (NUJ) oder community (NJV) Some with trial membership / membership discount Change? more action and best practice needed, but remains largely a national issue
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 On training and seminars Question 3.3 Many, but not all unions offer training Many have traditional manuals Some have their own Academy; some cooperate with training instititutions Very wide spectrum of activities - professional seminar - personal skills - entrepreneurial skills / start up - training for union work (work coincil...) - mentoring Question of paid oder unpaid training was not asked Change? New forms of online training and webinars, Universalcode collaborative manual, chapters discussed online
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Other benefits: large variety Question 3.3 Legal assistance Special insurabce packages (sometimes included in membership fee) Pre-financing Discounts and special offers (Software, Travel, Mobile Phones, Insurance) (some unions with own Service Company) Holiday ressorts and appartments
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Collective Bargaining & Strike Question 4.1 Traditional approaches and issues change fast (multimedia, crossmedia) Collective bargaining gets harder and takes longer (sometimes for years) In some countries no more bargaining or agreements In some countries there is no counterpart Fewer journalists fall under agreements (outsourcing, temporary work) Trend from national agreements to staff agreements Trend from staff agreemenst to individual contracts Development? Established journalists stick to their status 8and keep calm) Development? Younger journalists are difficult to mobilise Getting more difficult to have common goals (fragmentation, expectations)
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Collective Bargaining & Strike Question 4.1 Some stress the right to strike Some countries: Strike is still an option, the last option Technological development makes strike difficult production stop sometimes unnoticed by the reader / user / audience Trend: Internet and mediahouse –production stop is rarely an option Most unions demand / practice new forms of activities (protest meeting) Media hardly cover the activities (Italy: media have to publish) Social Media (Facebook, Twitter, Flash Mob – Campaigns on YouTube) Actions and Events – to make news, produce pictures to get coverage Appeals to the public – Journalism as a public good / VIP testimonials
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Beyond Collective Bargaining & Strike Change? The challenge is to transform the journalists rage and fears into new activities – beyond strike. Increasingly difficult because the number of members gets smaller, their engagement and potential for mobilisation diminishes. Best practices exchange of small, guerilla-like activities. New ways of informing freelances and younger journalists about union work, solidarity...
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Onliner, freelances Question 4.2 Online journalists (often) covered by agreements in large media companies Online journalists often in outsourced companies; treated as technical staff Online journalists as entrepreuneurs - > individual contracts Long working hours (hardly any rules) voluntary work in Social Media expected Change? no standards, online journalists manly have the same problems as freelances and are even more difficult to mobilise
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Training & collective agreements Question 5.1 Of course: deesirable, many unions with no real (positive) answers Existent in only a few countries (Italy, Norway) Depends very much on single media houses Mainly on the job training No long term stragegies (personal development, staff development)
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Training demands (for the future) Question 5.2 Every member should have the necessary training for his/her job, as well as recurrent further training. Many unions did not answer this question Not surprising No clear definition of multi-media, cross-media, social media, even online Some fear de-skilling Change: Define terms first, than trainings needs, find ways of incentives and co-financing.s
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Question 6.1 Half of questionnaires with no answer Question 6.2 Many questionnaries with no answer Question 6.1: How can unions provide equivalent protection to their freelances as to their employed members? Question 6.2: Is your union considering or changing its traditional tasks in order to better service its increasing freelance members? Please link to specific projects on your website. (Linklist available)
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Better service for freelances? Question 6.1 Many with no answer Main problem: legal status - enterpreneurs / self-employed Exemption: Loi Cressard (France) Minimum fees or salaries against legislation (cartel, competition) Some unions are against minimum fees Lobbying (national and EU) for a labor law for freelances via authors rights (e.g. Germany) Empowerment through services / networking / online seminars Better legal assistance
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Changing traditional tasks for freelances? Question 6.2 Majority without answer Could be crucial – many unions have up to 50 % freelance members In journalism freelances are not atypical workers anymore Some hints to changing structures in some unions Handbooks (and manuals) More: Social Media, communities, targeted activities – digital services Consultants for freelances (free of charge?) Webinars
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Changing traditional tasks for freelances? Things happening - support / facilitation through unions? Different forms of local journalism (place bloggers) Co-working spaces Innovative ways of funding – foundations, crowdfunding,crowdsourcing Workshops for new business models Communities, networking, innovative marketing plattforms Ongoing initiatives: late payment, authorsrights...
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Points for Discussion - Ready for Change? Focus from journalists to journalism (Public good) More targeted service and benefits esp. for freelances More digital outreach (mailinglist, community, social media) New forms of representation freelance work council More networking events, new formats (barcamp, blogger meetings) Better understanding for the needs and limitations of employed and freelance journalists Solidarity? Collective actions instead of collaboration? The new knowledge workers have no tradition to fight for own interest
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Points for Discussion - Ready for Change? Mapping needed! Multi-skilled and mobile journalists an increasing precarious workforce (professional journalists?9 Entrepreneurial journalists Fake freelances Data journalism, WikiLeaks Hard blogging journalists How can unions represent these new workers and where are they? Do they want them? Biggest challenge: inclusion of freelances (competing organisations) Do they need us? Do the want to be represented by a union?
Survey: Managing Change in Journalism. © Andreas K. Bittner, April 2011 Andreas K. Bittner twitter.com/qwasi facebook.com/qwasi.fb firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Thank you for ex-changing!
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