2 Stanza A group of lines in a poem Considered a unit Separated by spaces
3 Figurative LanguageWriting that is not meant to be interpreted literallyCreates vivid impressions by comparing dissimilar thingsEx: metaphors, similes, personificationsExample:The people that I love the bestjump into work head first,Without dallying in the shallows.
4 MetaphorA figure of speech in which one thing is spoken of as though it were something elseImplies comparisonExample: Juliet is the sun.
5 SimileA figure of speech that uses like or as to compare 2 unlike ideasExamples:John is as red as a beet.Claire is as flighty as a sparrow.
6 PersonificationThe use of figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given human characteristicsExample:the cry of the guitarthe laughter of the hyenas
7 Onomatopoeia The use of words that imitate sounds Examples: whirl, thud, sizzle, hiss
8 Tone The writer’s attitude toward the Examples: formal or informal readers and the subjectExamples: formal or informalserious or playfulbitter or ironicsympatheticgrieving
9 ImageryThe use of descriptive or figurative language to appeal to the reader’s senses.Creates word pictures (images)Uses details of sight, sound, taste, touch, smell, or movementExample: hearing ghostly marching on pavement stones
10 AssonanceThe repetition of vowel sounds followed by different consonants in 2 or more stressed syllablesExample: “weak and weary”
11 Speaker The imaginary voice assumed by the writer of a poem. Often not identified by nameMay be person, animal, thing, or abstractionEx: Dickinson as dead person
12 Alliteration The repetition of beginning consonant sounds Emphasizes words, imitates sounds, creates musical effectsExample: I grew like a thin, stubborn weed, watering myself whatever way I could.
13 AllusionA reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work or work of artExample of biblical allusion: “The Magi were wise men who brought gifts to the Babe in the manger.”
14 ConnotationThis refers to the set of ideas associated with a word in addition to its dictionary meaningExample: Dunbar’s “caged bird” connotes sad, trapped creatureExample: “previously owned vehicle” instead of “used car”
15 Denotation The dictionary meaning of a word Independent of other associationsExample: lakeDenotes inland body of waterConnotes vacation or fishing spot
16 Rhyme The repetition of sounds at the ends of words Example: Poe: “Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered/ weak and weary.”
17 SymbolA sign, word, phrase, image, or other object that stands for or represents something elseObject has own meaning but represents abstract ideasExamples:Flag symbolizes countryScarlet ibis symbolizes Doodle and other people who struggle
18 RepetitionUse of any language element – a sound, word, phrase, clause, or sentence – more than onceUsed for musical effects and for emphasisExamples:alliteration, assonance, rhyme, rhythm repeat soundsRefrain repeats line or lines
19 Refrain Regularly repeated line or group of lines Seen in songs often (the chorus)
20 Rhythm The pattern of beats or stresses in language Some poems have a specific pattern or meterExample: There was a young lady named bright Whose speed was far faster than lightProse and free verse use natural rhythms of everyday speech
21 Fixed Form These are stanzas with a repeated or predictable pattern Words in each stanza may rhyme or sound alikeThe length and rhythm of the stanzas are relatedThe number of syllables in a line can be fixed
22 Free Form or Free Verse Lacks structure or pattern Words may not rhyme Lines do not match in number of syllables, length, or rhythm
23 Lyric PoemThis is writing that is musical verse: uses rhythm, alliteration, and rhymeObservations and feelings of1 speakerSung with lyre in ancient times
24 Sonnets A fourteen line lyric poem with a theme Usually written in iambic pentameterShakespeare wrote some very famous sonnets
25 Narrative Poem This poem tells a story Examples: “Casey at the Bat”: humorous narrative poemPoe’s “Raven”: serious narrative poem
26 Ballad This is a songlike poem that tells a story Often adventure and romanceMost written in 4 to 6-line stanzas, regular rhythms and rhyme schemes, often a refrain
27 Limerick This is a humorous, rhyming, five-line poem Specific meter and rhyme scheme
28 Concrete PoemThis is a poem with a shape that suggests the subject
29 Haiku 3-line verse form 1st and 3rd lines have 5 syllables 2nd line has 7 syllablesSingle vivid emotion with images from nature