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Baroque Music.

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Presentation on theme: "Baroque Music."— Presentation transcript:

1 Baroque Music

2 Advances in Vocal and Instrumental Music
Evolution of 3 dramatic vocal forms: opera, oratorio, and cantata Instrumental Emancipation of instrumental music as accompaniment to vocal music—instrumental music dominated on its own Evolution of forms: sonata, suite, concerto

3 Vocal Music

4 Opera A dramatic staged musical production performed by singers and instrumentalists with support from dance, costumes, scenery, and lighting Opera seria—the predominant form of opera in the 17th and 18th centuries. It used mythological stories, employing a succession of recitatives and arias Recitative—words are sung based on speech rhythms and inflections Aria—an extended vocal solo with instrumental accompaniment. More “song-like” Notable operas include Handel’s Giulio Caesare, Purcell’s Dido and Aeneas, Monteverdi’s L’Incoronazione di Poppea

5 Oratorio Featured soloists (as characters), choir, instrumentalists
Not intended to be staged, but does tell a story Subject matter is usually biblical Intended as a concert piece The Messiah by G.F. Handel is the most famous example of a Baroque era oratorio Other significant oratorios include Bach’s St Matthew Passion, Schutz’s Easter Oratorio and Chapantier’s Le Reniement de Saint Pierre

6 Cantata Multi-movement vocal composition
Were written for soloists or choirs Intended to be used as part of a church service J.S. Bach was a prolific composer of cantatas—nearly 200 Wachet auf ruft uns die Stimme one of his most famous

7 Instrumental Music

8 Suite A piece made up of a number of short dances
Originally for harpsichord Often consists of four specific dances Allemande—duple meter, moderate tempo Courante—triple meter, fast tempo Sarabande—triple meter, slow tempo Gigue (Jig)—compound meter, fast tempo Other dances are often included Sometimes preceded by a Prelude Ensemble suites emerged later, often called “Sonata da Camera,” “ Sinfonia” or “Overture”

9 Sonata From the Italian sonare, meaning “to sound,” was first used to describe works that were played instead of sung Trio Sonata—written for two violins plus continuo (played by harpsichord) or two wind instruments (usually recorder, flute, or oboe) with continuo Continuo provided the bass line from which the harmonic structure was created Two main types of Baroque Sonatas: Sonata da chiesa (church sonata) Slow intorduction Allegro (quick) section—fugue Fugue—compositional technique using two or more voices, built on a theme that is introduced and repeated through imitation Cantabile slow movement Lively finale—binary form Sonata da camera (court sonata) Prelude Succession of dances Usually in the same key

10 Concerto Features a solo instrument contrasted by a larger ensemble
Solo concerto—features one solo instrument Concerto grosso—features several solo instruments Orchestral passages called tutti or ripieno passages Solo passages called concertino passages Attention to timbre—various combinations of instruments create contrast throughout piece

11 Significant Composers

12 Arcangelo Corelli Born in Fusignano, Italy, studied in Bologna, and settled in Rome Was famous for his skill as a violinist, known for the beautiful tone quality with which he played Was a popular composer—music was performed and revered throughout Europe He popularized the Concerto Grosso, his Opus 6 is his most popular He composed many Sonatas as well—many were dedicated to a variety of patrons, including Queen Christina, Cardinal Pamphili, and Cardinal Ottoboni Also known as a great teacher Vivaldi is is most famous student—became Corelli’s successor as composter of Concerti Grossi Many young composers, including Handel, would seek guidance from Corelli when they were in Italy

13 Johann Sebastian Bach 1685-1750 Born in Eisenach, Germany
Part of a musical family—learned from his father, uncles, and brother Worked as church musician in various churches around Germany Held many prestigious posts Kapellmeister to Prince Leopold Royal Court Composer to August III Cantor of the Thomasschule in Leipzig Famous for his skill as an organist Not recognized as a great composer until after his death Composed for organ, harpsichord, orchestral and chamber music, vocal works Fathered 20 children; 10 survived to adulthood

14 George Friederich Handel
Born in Germany Family was not musical; father wanted him to be a lawyer instead of a musician Trained in Hamburg and Italy Settled in England in 1727, where he lived the rest of his life Spent the early part of his career composing opera—was heavily influenced by his time in Italy Became Kapellmeister to Prince George of Germany, who would later become King George 1 of England Was employed by Queen Anne of England, the Earl of Burlington, and the Earl of Cork Wrote Zadok the Priest for the coronation of King George II, which has been played at every British coronation ceremony since Wrote the Messiah in The king was so inspired by the work that he stood for its finale, the “Hallelujah Chorus.” Since the king stood, the rest of the audience stood. It is still tradition to stand during the “Hallelujah Chorus.”

15 Antonio Vivaldi 1678-1741 Born in Venice
Ordained a priest, but left within a year of being ordained While he claimed a physical condition was the reason, some believe it was his love of music that was the reason for his departure Venice was known for its fine music conservatories Many orphanages also existed, called “Ospedali” Actually homes for the female offspring of noblemen and their mistresses Girls at these orphanages received excellent musical training Vivaldi worked at the Ospedale della Pieta, known as the best of the Ospedali. He composed many concerti for his talented pupils Wrote several operas, including Ottone in villa, Armida, Teuzzone, and Tito Manilo Wrote twelve concertos, of which The Four Seasons is the most famous

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