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GO131: International Relations Professor Walter Hatch Colby College Interventions Old and New.

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Presentation on theme: "GO131: International Relations Professor Walter Hatch Colby College Interventions Old and New."— Presentation transcript:

1 GO131: International Relations Professor Walter Hatch Colby College Interventions Old and New

2 The Westphalian System

3 But what if an otherwise sovereign state has “failed?”

4 Or if genocide results?

5 Should “we” intervene?

6 How to Intervene SuasionHeavy Coercion Voice of America Czechoslovakia

7 Why Intervene? “The Old Interventionism” Security reasons “The New Interventionism” Humanitarian reasons

8 International Law and Military Intervention States should respect sovereignty of other states "All members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security … are not endangered.” (Article 2.3 of the UN Charter) “All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state …” (Article 2.4) States should work together to repel aggression. Even here, though, UN’s authority in “collective security” is circumscribed. “Nothing in the charter shall authorize the UN to intervene in matters within the domestic jurisdiction” of states. (Article 2.7)

9 A Loophole “Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations …” (Article 51) May justify “Old Interventions”

10 Review: Cold War U.S. interventions Preserving its “sphere of influence” Containing Communism Soviet interventions Preserving its “sphere of influence” Promoting Communism

11 Review: Pre-emption as Gray Area Israel and the Osirak reactor (1981) U.S. and the Iraq war (2003)

12 New (Humanitarian) Intervention Germany into Czechoslovakia (1939) Rescuing Germans in the Sudetenland? India into East Pakistan (1971) Defending Bengalis fighting for independence? Vietnam into Cambodia (1978) Closing the Khmer Rouge “killing fields?” Tanzania into Uganda (1979) Protecting citizens against Idi Amin?

13 International Law Redux 1948 Convention on Genocide “crime against humanity” but …. how to stop it? Intervention only permitted in event of a “threat to international peace and security” (UN Charter, Article 39) Expanding the definition of “threat”

14 Sovereignty or Human Rights? Realists Intervention justified only to maintain order (balance of power) Cosmopolitans Intervention justified to ensure justice (human rights)

15 Somalia (1992-3)

16 Background Civil strife since 1991, when Siad Barre regime ousted Rival warlords contested for power in the south Mohamed Farah Aidid vs. Ali Mahdi War led to famine, humanitarian crisis

17 Famine in Somalia

18 Humanitarian intervention UN spent $675 million GHW Bush: 25,000 US troops Clinton: Taking Mogadishu (October 1993) 18 U.S. Rangers killed

19 Blackhawk Down

20 Haiti (1994)

21 Background Aristide elected president Populist priest Ousted in military coup Violence between army and pro-Aristide Aristide supporters Refugees flee Haiti

22 Floating to U.S.

23 Humanitarian Intervention Clinton deploys troops Aristide restored to power Troops leave in 1999 Aristide wins new election in 2000

24 Back to Haiti (2004)

25 Bosnia (1992-5)

26 Background New republics break away from former Yugoslavia (dominated by Serbs) Slovenia Croatia And, in 1992, Bosnia-Herzegovina 44% Muslim; 31% Serbian; 17% Croatian War erupts after Bosnian Muslims and Croats vote for independent state “ethnic cleansing” by Serbs

27 Humanitarian Quasi-Intervention

28 Srebrenica

29 Violence Ends the Violence NATO Croat-Muslim offensive Dayton Peace Accord

30 Kosovo (1999)

31 “Ethnic Cleansing” Redux

32 Role of the Media

33 NATO Strikes Back NATO airstrikes on Serb targets NATO ground troops enter Kosovo Serbian minority flees in face of reprisals

34 A New Exodus

35 The Iraq War New or old intervention?

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