Presentation on theme: "Urbanization and Immigration Maanas, Tammy, Chris H, Chris Y and Jeremy."— Presentation transcript:
Urbanization and Immigration Maanas, Tammy, Chris H, Chris Y and Jeremy
"Melting Pot" A "mixture of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs" (442 Littell) o The assimilation of immigrants from foreign countries o A drastic increase in diversity and multicultural activities o A large blend of religions, races, beliefs, cultures, and traditions Despite being accepted into society, many immigrants decided to refrain from changing their cultural identities. As more and more immigrants came to America, whites and Americans began to resent these immigrants and the government passed legislation that enforced restrictions on immigrant rights.
Melting Pot Cartoon From where and for what reasons did immigrants travel to America?
Nativism The political position of demanding a favored status for certain established inhabitants of a nation as compared to immigrants. It was a response to the growing numbers of immigrants in the United States. "Nativism" gained its name from "Native American" parties. Immigrants from West and Northern Europe were considered superior. In 1896, Congress passed a bill to require for literacy test for newcomers, but it was vetoed by president Cleveland.
Examples of Nativism Anti-Chinese Nativism--- very different language and culture, lower wages required (job opportunities were extremely scarce during the depression of 1873), etc. The Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Nativist group: American Protective Association (1887) anti-Catholic attacks colleges/businesses/social clubs refused to admit Jews
Nativism Political Cartoon-- The High Tide of Immigration What does the artist trying to convey in this cartoon? What is the artist's sentiment towards the massive immigration?
Problems with Urbanization Housing- there were not enough houses to contain the massive influx of people Tenements- these were houses divided into different sections to hold more people, every tenement in NYC held 2/3 of the population Fires- due to the extreme amount of people in each house fire became a huge problem, one example of this is the Chicago Fire of 1871 Crime- the approximated 16.3 million immigrants who started in poverty, the crime rate was exuberantly high Sanitization- there were not enough people to clean up after the increased population leading to unsanitary conditions
Problems With Urbanization Political Cartoon What aspect of urbanization does this represent? How would you feel in this situation?
Political Machines An organized group that controlled activities of a political party in a city and offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political and financial support Political Machines were structured like a pyramid o Precinct workers and captains worked to gain support in small areas o Ward bosses worked to secure votes in all the precinct's areas o City bosses controlled activities of the political party throughout the city o City bosses had a lot of control over the cities, as they had the power to hand out jobs (police, fire, sanitation dep.). They also had the power to improve the city (sewage systems, build parks... etc) o This gave bosses the power to reinforce voters' loyalty, win additional political support, and extend their influence.
Political Machines Continued... Many political bosses were immigrants and worked their way up the ranks. This allowed them to have a special relationship with incoming immigrants since they could communicate in the same language and understood the problems that the newcomers faced. The machines helped them find a place to live and get a job. In return they received votes. Corruption was also a big part of political machines. They made up names and they cast votes under these names. Also, kickbacks (illegal payments) were present between bosses and workers. Political machines also accepted bribes to allow illegal activities.
Examples of Political Machines Tammany Hall and "Boss Tweed"- political machine that ruled NYC The Tweed Ring Scandal- William "Boss" Tweed (head of NYC political machine) was part of the tweed ring (corrupt politicians) who pocketed $200 million from kickbacks over the time they were in power. For example, the city was going to build a county court house worth 3 million dollars but Boss Tweed approved the plan for 11 million to pocket excess money. o Convicted of fraud-sentenced to 12 years in prison The Longshoremen- political machine that was in most coastal cities and they controlled the ports Pendergast- located in Missouri and led by "Big Tom" Important Political Machine leaders- William Tweed(NYC), James Curley(Boston), Thomas Pendergast(Missouri), Richard Daley (Chicago)
Political Machine Cartoon What is being explained in this cartoon?
Urbanization and Immigration Quiz 1.What is a melting pot? 2.What is the idea of nativism? 3.What do you think was the biggest problem involved with urbanization? 4.What were the effects of the lack of housing? 5.How did tenements affect safety? 6.What is a political machine? 7.What did the boss of a political machine have the power to do? 8.Who were "superior" immigrants during the late 1800's?
Quiz Answers 1. Blending of different cultures in the same society 2. The political position of demanding a favored status for certain established inhabitants of a nation as compared to immigrants. 3. Opinion 4. Fires, Crime, Unsanitary conditions 5. There were too many people in a small area causing unsanitary conditions and fire hazards 6. An organized group that controlled activities of a political party in a city and offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political and financial support. 7. They had the power to hand out jobs and improve the city 8. Immigrants from the West and the North Europe