2 The Han Restore Unity in China Troubled EmpireIn the Qin Dynasty the peasants resent high taxes and harsh labor, and rebel.
3 The Han Restore Unity in China Liu Bang Founds the Han DynastyLiu Bang defeats Xiang Yu, a rival for power, and founds the Han DynastyThe Han Dynasty begins about 202 B.C. and lasts about 400 years.Han Dynasty has great influence on Chinese people and cultureLiu Bang establishes centralized government—a central authority rules.Liu Bang lowers taxes and reduces punishments to keep people happy
5 The Han Restore Unity in China The Empress LüLiu Bang dies in 195 B.C.; wife Lü seizes control of empireEmpress Lü rules for her young son and outlives him.There are palace plots and power plays occur throughout Han Dynasty
6 The Han Restore Unity in China The Martial EmperorLiu Bang’s great-grandson Wudi rules from 141 to 87 B.C.“Martial Emperor” Wudi defeats Xiongnu (nomads) and mountain tribesColonizes Manchuria, Korea, and as far south as what is now Vietnam
7 A Highly Structured Society Emperor’s RoleChinese believe their emperor has authority to rule from god.Believe prosperity is the reward of good rule, and troubles reveal poor rule.
8 A Highly Structured Society Structures of Han GovernmentComplex bureaucracy runs Han governmentPeople pay taxes and supply labor and military serviceGovernment uses peasant labor to carry out public projects
10 A Highly Structured Society Confucianism, the Road to SuccessWudi’s government employs 130,000; bureaucracy of 18 ranks of jobsCivil service jobs—government jobs obtained through examinations.Job applicants begin to be tested on knowledge of ConfucianismWudi favors Confucian scholars, builds schools to train themOnly sons of wealthy can afford expensive schoolingCivil service system works well, continues unil 1912
11 Han Technology, Commerce, and Culture Technology Revolutionizes Chinese LifeInvention of paper in A.D. 105 helps spread educationCollar harness, plow, and wheelbarrow improve farming
13 Han Technology, Commerce, and Culture Agriculture Versus CommerceAs population grows, farming regarded as important activityGovernment allows monopolies—control by one group over key industriesTechniques for producing silk become state secret as profits increase
14 Han Unifies Chinese Culture Bringing Different Peoples Under Chinese RuleTo unify empire, Chinese government encourages assimilationAssimilation—integrating conquered peoples into Chinese cultureWriters encourage unity by recording Chinese history
15 An emperor translating classical texts from the history of the Chinese emperors.
16 Han Unifies Chinese Culture Women’s Roles—Wives, Nuns, and ScholarsMost women work in the home and on the farmSome upper-class women are educated, run shops, practice medicine
17 The Fall of the Han and Their Return The Rich Take Advantage of the PoorLarge landowners gain control of more and more landGap between rich and poor increases
18 The Fall of the Han and Their Return Wang Mang Overthrows the HanEconomic problems and week emperors cause political instabilityIn A.D. 9, Wang Mang seizes power and stabilizes empireWang Mang is assassinated in A.D. 23; Han soon regain control
19 The Fall of the Han and Their Return The Later Han YearsPeace is restored. The Later Han Dynasty lasts until A.D. 220