5 ImperialismImperialism: the political and economic control of one area or country by another.Past Examples:PersiaRomeEuropean Colonies in 15th – 18th CenturyThe Roman EmpireWhat are the benefits to controlling the government and economy of another country?
6 European ImperialismEuropean countries created colonies all over the worldSome colonies were lost when they revolted, such as the U.S.By the 19th century Europe still had colonies in India, South Africa, and the East IndiesWhat might be some negative aspects of controlling another countries government and economy?
7 The British “Raj” (Reign) in India During the 18th century Great Britain took control of much of IndiaReforms:Wiped out some old local traditions and customsBuilt a railroadSpread ChristianityBuilt schools and collegesEnglish became official languageThe Indians like some of the new changes, but resented the change to their customs and beliefsBritain tried to modernize India. Why did the Indians resent the British efforts?
8 The Sepoy Mutiny (1857)Britain used Indian soldiers called Sepoys to control the countryThe Sepoys revolted in 1857The British easily stopped the rebellionAfter this Britain took over complete control of the countryQueen Victoria became the Empress of IndiaDo you think the Indian people might try and achieve independence again? Why?
9 The Impact of British Rule on India Government:Unified India under one governmentMade English the official languageEconomic:built roads, railways, and telegraphHurt local cottage industry from British manufacturingHealth:built hospitalsIntroduced new medicineProvided famine reliefResulted in a population explosionSocial:Indian culture was seen as inferior to BritishIndian workers provided cheap labor, working long hours for little payWas the British reign in India good or bad? Explain.
10 Other British Colonies Britain also has colonies in:South AfricaWest IndiesCanadaAustraliaNew ZelandSingaporeWhat might be some of the problems with having colonies all over the world?
11 Other European Colonies France:West IndiesWest AfricaIndiaAlgeriaIndochinaHolland:Dutch East IndiesSpain:PhilippinesCubaPuerto RicoWhy did European countries feel they needed colonies?
13 The “New Imperialism”Imperialism was almost gone in the 18th century due to the loss of many of the American coloniesA new imperialism sprang up from 1880 to Almost every corner of the earth was claimed by a European countryDescribe the picture
14 Causes of the “New Imperialism” Industrial Revolution TechnologiesSteamboat helped reach the interior of Africa and AsiaTelegraph made communication across large distances possibleRailroad made shipping of goods and raw materials easierMedicine made exploring new areas saferNew military weapons helped to control local peopleCan you name another time in history when technology has promoted such a movement?
15 Causes of the “New Imperialism” Economic Motives:Industry needed raw materialsIndustry needed new marketsPolitical Motives:Demonstrates a nations powerSought to preserve a balance of power between European countriesSocial Motives:Social Darwinism: some societies were superior to others and should spread their cultureSpread ChristianityExplain how this picture relates to Social Darwinism
16 The “Scramble for Africa” Between 1870 and 1890 most of Africa came under the control of a European country1880 a revolt in Egypt prompted Great Britain to take over that country so it could continue to use the Suez CanalIn 1884 the Berlin Conference divided Africa up among the European countriesBy 1890 only Ethiopia and Liberia were independentExplain this picture
17 Major Imperial Powers France: Belgium: Great Britain: Germany: Central AfricaNorthwest Africa above the SaharaBelgium:The CongoGreat Britain:West AfricaEast African coast from Egypt to South AfricaGermany:TanganyikaCameroonTogoSouthwest Africa
18 Positive Effects of Imperialism in Africa Health:MedicineImproved nutritionLonger life spansPopulation explosionTechnologyModern transportation (steamboat & railroad)Communications (telegraph and telephone)Economics:Some Africans received an educationSome received better jobs such as administrators or in the armyIs the loss of the control of your government and economy worth the positive outcomes of that loss?
19 Negative Effects on Imperialism in Africa Traditions:Led to an erosion of traditional African valuesDestroyed existing social relationshipsCultureAfrican people were treated as inferiorAfricans worked long hours for little money in terrible conditionsPolitically:Africa was divided without thought toward tribal, ethnic, and cultural boundariesLed to continuing tribal conflictsWhat might be some of the effects to a society that loses its culture?
20 "Informal Imperialism"Explain the meaning of this political cartoon.
21 European Powers and China Why Europe was Interested in China:Large marketValuable raw materialsProduced good Europeans wantedChina lacked a strong military. Europe forced China to do what it wanted.
22 The Opium Wars (1839-1842) Causes: Britain easily won Results: Britain sold opium in China to get money to buy teaChina sentenced opium dealers to death to try and stop this practiceBritain declared warBritain easily wonResults:Damaged the Chinese economyCreated political instability in ChinaBritain got new trade privileges giving Britain economic control of some areas (Spheres of Influence)Other European countries wanted their own Sphere of InfluenceChinese people revolted against the Chinese rulersBritish gunships pound the Chinese coastWhy do you think the European countries felt they had the right to control the Chinese economy?
23 U.S. Involvement in China U.S. Open Door Policy: The U.S. proposed equal trading rights between all countries in They wanted a part of the action.Boxer Rebellion:Chinese (Boxers) rebelled against foreign influenceHundreds of foreigners were killedEuropean forces put down the rebellionThe U.S. helped to stop the rebellion with troops and ships stationed in the Philippines, but also stopped Europe from further dividing up China.What does the rebellion show of how the Chinese people felt about foreign influence?What was the U.S. main purpose in China?
24 The Opening of Japan Japan closed itself off to foreigners in 1639. The U.S. sent a naval force to Japan in 1853:Led by Mathew PerrySought to open Japanese portsJapan opened its ports, so they would not be taken over like ChinaMeiji Restoration ( ):The nobles in Japan criticized the decision to open its doorsThe Shogun fell and was replaced by the EmperorThe Emperor tried to make Japan more like the West.He sent scholars to learn western technologies and customsMathew PerryCompare and contrast Western influence on China and Japan.
25 Latin America Spanish American War: Spain still held Puerto Rico, Cub, and a few islands in the late 1800s.Cuba rebelled in 1898.In 1898 the USS Maine blew up in the Havana harbor.US and Spain went to war.US won and received Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines from SpainThe US also annexed HawaiiWould you consider the U.S. to be imperialistic based on the events in China, Japan, and the Spanish American War.
26 Latin AmericaMost of Latin America was economically dependent on the U.S. and Great Britain.Panama Canal:Shorter route between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.Area was owned by Columbia.President Roosevelt encouraged Panamanian rebels to declare independence in 1904.The U.S. protected the rebels.Took 10 years to build the canalUsed the Monroe Doctrine as a basis for protecting the canal.Roosevelt said “Walk softly and carry a big stick.” How does this statement relate to the Panama Canal situation.