Presentation on theme: "Realism, Positivism, Marxism and Materialism. Chapter 22: pages 900-911."— Presentation transcript:
Realism, Positivism, Marxism and Materialism. Chapter 22: pages 900-911
The objectives for this slideshow are: In what ways did the failed revolutions of 1848 foster the idea of MATERIALISM? In what ways was REALISM a sign of the times in painting and literature? Identify what is Positivism— And, finally, you will learn the important background that influence Karl Marx beliefs and its future impact on Russian History.
The revolutions of 1848 spread throughout Europe, and what began with hope was quickly suppressed by reactionary, conservative governments.
After the failure of the revolutions of 1830 and 1848, the dreams of many Europeans ended.
There had been some positive outcomes of 1848—peasants were freed in Germany and Austria, and many moved to America.
Many were bitter about government reaction after the revolutions. This new attitude was called materialism: an idea that all things were a result of physiological or physical forces. In art and music it was called realism.
Realism included painters such as Courbet, Millet, and Daumier…
It was a “manifesto” that encouraged workers to overthrow the systems that oppressed them.
Marx wrote about the alienation of labor…when work becomes so mechanical that people become estranged from the objects they produce. This was something he observed as the unregulated industrial revolution continued in Britain and spread to Europe.
A good example of this is factories where people would be doing repetitive tasks for very little pay.
Marx studied Hegel’s view of thesis, antithesis and synthesis.
Marx echoed that history was the result of impersonal forces—
He wrote that conditions, mainly economic, produce the change--
The Communist Manifesto was a summons to revolution…
The famous saying, “Workers of the world, unite.” is one of the most famous in history.
So remember, this saying has its roots in the unhappy conditions of France and other countries prior and after the 1848 revolutions.
Karl Marx spent time in London—where he spent hours in the British Library Reading Room. There he began the research that led to his great works of political and economic analysis, including the monumental Das Kapital.