4 Voyages of Discovery Main Idea Reading Focus During the 1400s and 1500s European explorers—inspired by greed, curiosity, and the desire for glory, and aided by new technologies—sailed to many previously unknown lands.Reading FocusWhat were the foundations upon which the Age of Exploration was built?What discoveries were made by explorers from Portugal and Spain?What drove explorers from the rest of Europe?
5 Foundations of Exploration Renaissance spirit of discovery and innovation in EuropeSpirit led Europeans to set sail on voyages of discoveryPeriod is sometimes called the Age of ExplorationSearch for wealthEuropeans desired expensive luxury goodsFlow of goods controlled by Italian merchantsCharged high prices for these rare goodsDrive to ExploreHoped to find new, faster routes to Asia to gain trade footholdWealth not only goalSome set out to find fame, gloryHoped making great discoveries would bring honor to their namesNew RoutesOther explorers hoped to spread their faith into new landsAnother motive—simple curiosityWritings like Marco Polo’s very popular in Europe, intrigued many with tales of exotic lands, peoplesFaith, Curiosity
6 Advances in Technology Whatever reasons for exploring, Europeans could not have made voyages of discovery without certain key advances in technologySome advances made in Europe during RenaissanceOthers borrowed from people with whom Europeans had contact, especially Chinese, MuslimsNavigationSailors needed precise means to calculate locationCompass brought to Europe from China, let know sailors know which direction was north at any timeEuropeans learned to use astrolabe from MuslimsNavigators could chart location based on sun, stars in relation to horizon
7 Shipbuilding Improvements Caravels Popular for Exploratory Voyages Just as important as advances in navigation were advances in shipbuildingEuropeans learned to build ships that rode lower in water than earlier shipsDeep-draft ships could withstand heavier waves; also had larger cargo holdsCaravelsCaravel, light, fast sailing ship; two features made it highly maneuverableSteered with rudder at stern, rather than with side oarsAlso lateen, triangular, sails; could be turned to catch wind from any directionPopular for Exploratory VoyagesCaravel would also be equipped with weapons, including cannonsShips could face off against hostile ships at seaManeuverability, defensive ability made caravel most popular for exploring
8 How did advances in technology spur exploration? SummarizeHow did advances in technology spur exploration?Answer(s): new ships faster and more maneuverable, could better handle sea voyages; navigational instruments allowed for voyages of exploration
9 Explorers from Portugal and Spain As a result of their location facing the Atlantic Ocean, Portugal and Spain were well suited to kicking off the Age of Exploration.Portugal was first country to launch large-scale voyages of explorationBegun largely due to efforts of Prince Henry, son of King John I of PortugalOften called Henry the Navigator, not himself explorerPatron, supporter of those who wished to exploreThe PortugueseEarly 1400s, Henry established court to which he brought sailors, mapmakers, astronomers, othersExpeditions sent west to islands in Atlantic, south to explore western coast of AfricaPortuguese settled Azores, Madeira Islands, learned more about Africa’s coastNavigation Court
10 Exploration Attempts Water Route to India da Gama Lucrative Trade Prince Henry’s ultimate goal—find water route around Africa to IndiaDied before goal accomplished; attempts to find such a route not abandoned1488, Bartolomeu Dias became first to sail around southern tip of Africada Gama1497, Vasco da Gama set out for India, stopped at several African portsLearned Muslim merchants actively involved in tradeJourney took more than 10 months, eventually reached Calicut in IndiaLucrative Tradeda Gama’s trip inspired another expedition to India, led by Pedro CabralSailed west; sighted, claimed land that became known as BrazilPortugal established trading centers; became rich, powerful European nation
11 Columbus’ First Voyage The SpanishSpain also eager to seek out new routes to riches of East1492, Spanish rulers agreed to pay for voyage by Italian sailor Christopher ColumbusColumbus believed he could sail west from Spain, reach ChinaCorrect in theory, but figures he presented about earth’s size wrongAlso had no idea the Americas lay across AtlanticItalian SailorColumbus reached island in Caribbean after about two months at seaThought he had reached Asian islands known as Indies; called people living there Indians1493, returned to Spain with exotic items, including parrots, jewels, gold, plants unknown in EuropeSpanish believed Columbus found new route to Asia, hailed him as heroColumbus’ First Voyage
12 Results of Voyages Columbus—three more voyages to Americas Still believed he had reached AsiaError not realized until about 1502Explorer Amerigo Vespucci sailed coast of South America, concluded it was not AsiaMapmakers later named land America in his honorKnowing they had found new land, Spanish set out to explore it1513, Núñez de Balboa led expedition across Isthmus of PanamaAfter more than three weeks of travel, Balboa became first European to see Pacific Ocean
13 Ferdinand Magellan West Around World Perilous Voyage After Balboa’s discovery, the Spanish realized they needed to cross another ocean to reach Asia.What Spanish did not know was how large ocean might beDaring adventurer, Ferdinand Magellan decided to sail west around world1519, Magellan set out for Spain with five ships, 250 menWest Around WorldJourney long, difficult; some men mutinied, rebelledMagellan killed in fight with Philippine natives; his men sailed on1522, 18 survivors of original fleet arrived back in Spain, first to circumnavigate worldPerilous Voyage
14 Explorers and their Routes Chapter 16, section 1, pages
17 What did da Gama, Columbus, and Magellan accomplish? AnalyzeWhat did da Gama, Columbus, and Magellan accomplish?Answer(s): da Gama—reached India via sea; Columbus—landed in the Americas; Magellan—circumnavigated the earth
18 Explorers from the Rest of Europe Spanish and Portuguese did not remain alone in their efforts.By early 1500s the English and French were exploring northern parts of the Americas.Dutch later joined in explorations.1497, first major English voyage of discovery launchedJohn Cabot sailed to Atlantic coast of what is now CanadaTried to repeat voyage; fleet vanished, presumably sunkThe EnglishEnglish soon realized they had reached an unknown land, not AsiaQueen sent Sir Francis Drake outAfter stop in what is now California, Drake sailed north to seek route around North AmericaSir Francis DrakeThe weather was too cold, and he ended up heading west around the world to get back to England. He became the second man to circumnavigate the globe.
19 Henry Hudson The French The Dutch England wanted to find shorter route to Asia than Magellan foundSent Dutch-born sailor Henry Hudson1607, Hudson set out to northHoped to find Northeast Passage around EuropeFound nothing but ice, returned to EnglandLater made two more voyages for English, one for DutchAlso wanted to find passage to AsiaSent explorers to look for Northwest Passage1534, Jacques Cartier sailed past Newfoundland into St. Lawrence River, claimed land as province of New France, now CanadaThe FrenchBy 1600s Netherlands powerful trading nation, hoped to find new products, trading partners1609, Henry Hudson set out to find Northwest PassageDid not find passage, but did explore river now named for himThe Dutch
20 What did English, French, and Dutch explorers hope to find? Find the Main IdeaWhat did English, French, and Dutch explorers hope to find?Answer(s): a shorter route to Asia