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© Boardworks Ltd 20051 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 20 Food Technology Additives These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses.

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Presentation on theme: "© Boardworks Ltd 20051 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 20 Food Technology Additives These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Boardworks Ltd 20051 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 20 Food Technology Additives These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation.

2 © Boardworks Ltd 20052 of 20 Learning objectives To understand what additives are. To understand the role of additives in food production. To know what the beneficial and detrimental effects of additives are. © Boardworks Ltd 2005 2 of 20

3 © Boardworks Ltd 20053 of 20 Ingredients in traditional ice cream

4 © Boardworks Ltd 20054 of 20 Egg yolks are whisked while the hot syrup is slowly poured in. The mixture is whisked until it is thick and like a mousse. The mixture is poured into an ice cream machine and churned until frozen or put in a freezer and whisked every 2 hours until frozen (so large ice crystals do not form). Could this kind of ice cream be made in large quantities? How is traditional ice cream made? Sugar is dissolved in water over heat and boiled to a light syrup. The cream is whisked in. Are the ingredients expensive? Is it safe to use raw eggs and cream?

5 © Boardworks Ltd 20055 of 20 partially reconstituted lactose reduced whey protein concentrate sugar hydrogenated vegetable oil dextrose whey powder emulsifiers stabilizers flavourings and colours. Ingredients in manufactured ice cream Manufactured ice cream contains the following ingredients: What do you think of the ingredients used? The last four ingredients are additives which is nearly half the ingredients!

6 © Boardworks Ltd 20056 of 20 Additives are synthetic or natural substances which are added to food in small quantities. They have a number of different functions such as: What are additives? Why are additives used in ice cream? preventing spoilage and prolonging a food’s shelf life improving or enhancing a food’s flavour or appearance helping the processing and preparation of food and ensuring a consistent quality of food restoring the food’s original characteristics after processing maintaining or increasing the food’s nutritional value allowing a bigger variety of food products to be produced and in particular, quick and easy convenient foods.

7 © Boardworks Ltd 20057 of 20 What is in manufactured ice cream?

8 © Boardworks Ltd 20058 of 20 Emulsifiers and stabilizers

9 © Boardworks Ltd 20059 of 20 Emulsifiers and stabilizers Emulsifiers give foods a smooth creamy texture and help substances such as oil and water to mix together, form an emulsion and stay mixed. They are found naturally in eggs so real ice cream does not need any added emulsifier. What are emulsifiers and stabilizers? Stabilizers help emulsifiers work – they stabilize the emulsion. In ice cream they control the texture. If the ice cream partially melts on the way home from the shop, the stabilizer will help it to maintain the same texture and stop it freezing back into a block of solid ice.

10 © Boardworks Ltd 200510 of 20 Flavour is the essence of food. It comes from the combined taste and aroma of food. There are five basic flavours (sweet, sour, bitter, salt and savoury) which combine to create all the food flavours we know. Flavours are: Flavours The flavour used in a lot of ice cream is vanillin – a natural identical flavour taken from vanilla. natural such as herbs and spices natural identical (made in a laboratory but chemically the same as certain natural products artificial (man-made but not found in nature).

11 © Boardworks Ltd 200511 of 20 Monosodium glutamate or MSG makes the tongue more receptive to savoury salty tastes. It is usually manufactured from wheat gluten or beet molasses by a fermentation process devised in the 1950s. It is the sodium salt of glutamic acid. Flavour enhancer: monosodium glutamate MSG is used in these economy burgers (less than 60p for 8 burgers!) to give them a meaty taste. The actual meat content is just over 50% – meat is an expensive ingredient. It is also used in cheese sauces to make them taste cheesy – cheese is another expensive ingredient.

12 © Boardworks Ltd 200512 of 20 Colours

13 © Boardworks Ltd 200513 of 20 Making orange squash

14 © Boardworks Ltd 200514 of 20 Preservatives Preservatives increase the shelf life of foods by preventing the growth of bacteria. Salting, drying, pickling, heating, chilling and freezing are methods of preservation as well as using chemical preservatives. The use of chemical preservatives is really a continuation of age-old practices of using salt and spices to preserve foods. Most chemical preservatives are closely related to natural substances. For example, E210 Benzoic acid occurs in several fruits such as the Scandinavian cloudberry. Sorbic acid is found in some plants such as the mountain ash. E234 Nisin occurs in milk and cheese. By adding preservatives to food, consumers can shop less frequently and bulk buy.

15 © Boardworks Ltd 200515 of 20 Antioxidants prevent food containing fat from going rancid – they stop the fat from reacting with the oxygen in air. They also prevent the oxidization of fruit and vegetables – stop them from going brown. Antioxidants The most powerful antioxidant is ascorbic acid (E300) which is found in a lot of fruit, especially citrus fruit. Ascorbic acid is another name for vitamin C, so it has nutritive properties as well.

16 © Boardworks Ltd 200516 of 20 Sugar provides sweetness, quick energy and calories. Sweeteners provide sweetness without the calories. There are two types of sweeteners – bulk and intense. Sweeteners Saccharin is an intense sweetener. It is 300 - 500 times sweeter than sugar weight for weight. We are a sweet-tooth society! Sorbitol (E420) is a bulk sweetener which provides the bulk, texture and sweetness of sugar but with reduced calories. Like sugar, it does not brown when heated. Unlike sugar, it does not need insulin to break it down in the body and so can be eaten by diabetics.

17 © Boardworks Ltd 200517 of 20 raising agents such as sodium bicarbonate which give a lighter texture to baked products anti-caking agents which stop crystals and powders like salt, cocoa and even parmesan cheese from sticking together thickening agents (gums or modified starches) which form a gel and thicken sauces propellants used in aerosol products such as cream or oil nutrients – usually vitamins and minerals – which are added to replace nutrients lost during processing or to enrich certain foods. Vitamins A and D are added to margarine so that it has a nutritional profile similar to butter. Other additives Other additives include:

18 © Boardworks Ltd 200518 of 20 Additives word search

19 © Boardworks Ltd 200519 of 20 Are additives good or bad?

20 © Boardworks Ltd 200520 of 20 Key points Additives are non-nutrient materials which are added to food in very small quantities. Additives can be natural, natural identical or artificial. Using additives in food means that a wider variety of food products can be made with better colour, flavour and texture. They also last longer. Some consumers are concerned about the effects of eating additives. © Boardworks Ltd 2005 20 of 20

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