3 RomanticismArose in Europe as a reaction to the Age of Reason, and in America, PuritanismSaw limits of reasonCelebrated the glories of the individualSplendor of (super)natural inspiredAtmosphere, sentiment, optimismLongfellow, Irving, Bryant, Whitman
4 RomanticismCommon motifs: nature, good vs. evil, light vs. dark, happy (or at least just) endings, the supernaturalCommon themes: Bad things happen to bad people, good things happen to good people; we control our own choices; those who came before us have something to teach us (respect for past)Common hero: gifted, idealistic and perhaps misunderstood loner
5 Romanticism vs. ReasonAs Age of Reason comes to an end, Romanticism rises from its ashes (or perhaps causes the fire!)Enlightenment thinkers = deduction, order, classificationRomantic thinkers = feeling, intuition, imaginationContrast how these schools of thought may have treated or viewed nature.
6 Psalm of LifeWhat about the poem makes it Romantic?
7 Washington Irving (1783-1859) Creator of the American short story Best known for:“The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”“Rip Van Winkle”
8 Elements of a Short Story? ExpositionRising actionClimaxFalling actionDenouement or resolution
9 Washington Irvingliterary debut: a series of observational letters to the Morning Chronicle, written under the pseudonym Jonathan Oldstyle1815 – moved to Englandachieved international fame with the publication of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent.
10 Washington IrvingAmerica's first genuine internationally best-selling author, Irving advocated for writing as a legitimate profession, and argued for stronger laws to protect American writers from copyright infringement.
11 Washington IrvingIrving encouraged American authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Edgar Allan Poe.Published regularly and almost always successfully throughout his life (both fiction and historical works, biographies, and several histories of 15th-century Spain)served as U.S. minister to Spain from 1842 to 1846
12 Transcendentalism From German Romanticism “Transcendent forms of truth exist beyond reason and experience”Emerson goes one step further, American twist…Individuals can achieve their own truths through intuitionHenry David Thoreau embodied spirit – solitary communion with nature to reveal truths
13 TranscendentalismHighly educated, New England – working to create a distinctly American literatureDefining spirituality – rationalism not enough; sentiment, emotion, intuition must be accounted forSpeaking out against slavery and for women’s rights
14 Self - Reliance Read Self – Reliance Use a DICTIONARY for unfamiliar wordsAnswer the questions on the handout #1, #2, #3, #4, #5, #7Get with a group of 3 or 4 classmates and discuss your answersReturn to the group for a discussion