2 Introduction Importance of History Intercultural interactions involve a dialectical interplay between past and present.Many current situations cannot be understood without knowing their historical background.How we think about the past influences how we think about ourselves and others.
3 From History to Histories Histories that shape our identities:Political HistoriesIntellectual HistoriesSocial HistoriesAbsent History
4 From History to Histories Histories that shape our identities, cont.:5. Family Histories6. National History7. Cultural-Group Histories
5 History, Power, and Intercultural Communication The Power of TextsNarrative form of historyLack of access to production of textsImportance of language
6 History, Power, and Intercultural Communication The Power of Texts, cont.History as a particular way of viewing the worldAvailability of documents as a function of powerModernist identity and the linear nature of history
7 History, Power, and Intercultural Communication The Power of Other HistoriesThe “grand narrative” has lost credibility.Histories that have been suppressed, hidden, or erased are being rewritten.This enables us to examine what cultural identities mean and to rethink the dominant cultural identity.
8 History, Power, and Intercultural Communication Power in Intercultural InteractionsWe are never "equal" in intercultural encounters, because history has left us in unbalanced positions that still influence our interactions and identities.
9 History and Identity Histories as Stories Histories are stories we use to help us make sense of ourselves and others.U.S. cultural attitudes encourage us to forget history.This masks history’s influence on us and leads to wrong conclusions about others.
10 History and Identity Nonmainstream Histories Mainstream U.S. history does not include all ethnic histories and racial histories.Some people feel these histories undermine national history, butthey act as markers in the maintenance of cultural identity for many groups of people.
11 History and Identity Hidden Histories Awareness of hidden histories helps others understand how groups have negotiated cultural attitudes in the past that are relevant today.Gender historiesSexual orientation historiesRacial and ethnic historiesSocioeconomic class histories
12 History and Identity Hidden Histories, cont. Diasporic histories chronicle the migrations and dispersal of cultural groups.Colonial histories influence the languages we speak.Postcolonialism calls for independence of states and colonialist ways of thinking.
13 Intercultural Communication and History Antecendents of ContactChildhood experiences concerning other culturesHistorical myths about other culturesThe language we speakThe tendency to be affected by recent, vivid events
14 Intercultural Communication and History The Contact Hypothesis: the idea that better communication between groups of people will occur if they are put together allowed to interact
15 Intercultural Communication and History Contact hypothesis conditions:Equal statusInstitutional supportVoluntaryPotential to extend beyond the immediate situationMaximizing cooperationEqual numbersSimilar beliefs and valuesIndividuation of group members
16 BELIEFS, NORMS, & VALUES THE AMERICAN CULTURE With your group establish “The American Culture”. Brainstorm your ideas and in one paragraph share with the class a detailed summary of your American culture.What values (shared standards of judgment about what is right or wrong, good or bad, appropriate or inappropriate, beautiful or ugly), beliefs (what people know or believe to be true -i.e. believing in God, science, freedom, democracy), and norms (shared rules and expectations that are used to guide behavior –i.e. we don't pick our noses in public) are considered important to the American culture?300 WORD SUMMARY