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Introduction Dr Magnus Currie From Scotland, UK MEng Civil Engineering

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction Dr Magnus Currie From Scotland, UK MEng Civil Engineering"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction Dr Magnus Currie From Scotland, UK MEng Civil Engineering
PhD Wind Energy Systems (Concrete Monitoring) Class Tutors > Ms Liu and Ms Gau

2 ENG1010 Resources Powerpoints (PPTs) will be uploaded after each lecture Tutorials will also be uploaded Web address > There is no textbook for this course Please take notes in a note book If you don’t understand something please ask 

3 ENG1010-Reinforced Concrete Design
Week One – Basic Principles of Concrete Week Two – Reinforced Concrete Construction Week Three – Concrete Considerations Final Day – Exam 

4 Week 1 1. Introduction to Concrete 2. Concrete Design and Properties 3. Concrete Chemistry 4. Concrete Admixtures 5. Properties of Materials

5 Tutorial Times Monday – Thursday English 14:30-15:30
Chinese 15:40 – 16:40 Friday English 08:30-09:30 Chinese 09:40-10:40

6 Lecture 1 Introduction to Concrete
Dr Magnus Currie ENG-1010: Reinforced Concrete Design

7 Objectives To explain the basic concepts of concrete
To explain the properties of fresh concrete To explain the properties of hardened concrete

8 Concrete A mixture of two components Paste (25% - 40%)
Aggregates (60% – 75%)

9 Paste Paste compromises of: A binder (such as cement) Water
Air (either entrapped or entrained) Other admixtures depending on the mix

10 Aggregates Compromises a mix of: Fine aggregates (such as sand)
Coarse aggregates (gravel or crushed stone)

11 Making Concrete When paste and aggregates are mixed together the particles of aggregates get coated with the paste. Because of the chemical reaction of the cement and water the paste hardens and binds the aggregates together to form a rocklike mass called ‘Concrete’ We will discuss this reaction later 

12 Volume Distribution The volume of each material in concrete depends on the design strength, the use of the concrete and the environment in which it will be used. Air and water become trapped inside a concrete element

13 Quality of Concrete Aggregate requirement Paste requirement

14 Aggregate Requirement
Aggregates should consist of particles with adequate STRENGTH against compression, impact and abrasion. Aggregate particles should have RESISTANCE against aggressive exposure conditions such as highly fluctuating temperature and humidity.

15 Aggregate Requirement
Aggregates should NOT contain deleterious materials such as chloride, sulfates, etc. That will cause deterioration of concrete. The size, shape and particle size distribution (gradation), of the aggregates should be such that the least amount of paste is required to fill the spaces between aggregate particles

16 Paste Requirements Quality of paste greatly affects the quality of the concrete Paste should be sufficient enough to completely coat each particle of aggregate and to fill spaces between aggregate particles completely

17 Paste Requirements The quality of hardened concrete is determined by the amount of water used in relation to the amount of cement. This is called the W/C ratio of the paste

18 Advantages of reducing the W/C ratio of the paste
Increase compressive strength and flexural strength Lower permeability, thus increased water-tightness and lower absorption Increased resistance to weathering Better bond between successive layers and between concrete and reinforcement

19 Advantages of reducing the W/C ratio of paste
Less volume change from wetting and drying Reduced shrinkage cracking tendencies

20 Effect of w/c ratio on compressive strength of concrete

21 Uses of admixtures to improve the Quality of concrete
Adjusting setting time or hardening in abnormal conditions of concreting such as cold and hot. Reducing water demand Increasing workability in case of a very low w/c ratio Intentionally entrained air in concrete

22 Mixing Requirements All the ingredients of concrete should be mixed properly so as to achieve a homogenous mixture The sequence of charging ingredients into the mixer plays an important part in the uniformity of the finished product Size of the batch in relation to the size of the mixer

23 Mixing Requirements The elapsed time between batching and mixing
Design, configuration and condition of the mixer drum and blades

24 Consolidation Requirements
Consolidation of the freshly placed concrete removes voids in concrete and improves the quality of concrete as a result of increased density. For a highly workable concrete the consolidation should be done by hand rodding (vibration)

25 Consolidation Requirements
For stiffer mixtures having low w/c ratio the consolidation should be done by vibration. Vibration sets in motion the particles in freshly mixed concrete, reducing friction between them and thereby increasing the mobility of concrete which helps in removing the voids even at low w/c ratio.

26 Consolidation Requirements
Consolidation by vibration permits the lower w/c ratio which in turn results in improved quality. Vibration of highly workable concrete should be avoided as it can cause segregation of the concrete.

27 Effect of Consolidation

28 Curing requirements Curing of a placed and finished concrete is done for maintaining a satisfactory moisture and temperature in concrete for some defined period after placing and finishing, to allow the complete hydration of the cement.

29 Curing Requirements Following are various methods commonly used for concrete curing: - Ponding or immersion - Spraying or fogging - Wet covering - Plastic sheets and impervious paper coverings - Membrane-forming curing compounds - Steam curing

30 Advantages of Curing More strength and abrasion resistance
More water tightness Less volumetric changes More volume stability More resistance to freezing and thawing and deicer salts More durability

31 Effect of Curing on Strength

32 Properties of freshly mixed concrete
Workability Hydration Setting Time Hardening

33 Workability The Slump Test

34 Properties of Hardened Concrete
Strength Unit Weight Resistance to freezing and thawing Permeability and water tightness Abrasion Resistance Volume Stability Control of Cracking

35 Compressive Strength

36 Summary Explain the basic concepts of concrete
Explain the properties of fresh concrete Explain the properties of hardened concrete

37 Pantheon, Rome, Italy (27BC)
Questions? Pantheon, Rome, Italy (27BC)

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