# Observing We observe when we use one or more of our senses to find out about objects, events or living things. An observation is a fact learned directly.

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Observing We observe when we use one or more of our senses to find out about objects, events or living things. An observation is a fact learned directly through the senses. Observation Facts: Cactus is green and has a hurtful texture.

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Observations Qualitative observations: Express observations using descriptive words (red, small, circular, smelly, old, bumpy, screechy-sounding) Quantitative observations: Express observations in terms of numbers (1.5 L, 26 inches, 2 grams, 46 meters deep, 1 leaf)

Communicating We communicate when we give or receive information. Precise language is needed for describing an observation, recording a measurement or interpreting data. Poor communication: The amount of mercury in the beaker is 70 mL. Correct communication: The amount of water in the graduated cylinder is 76 mL.

Defining Operationally We define operationally when we write a definition of an object or event based on our experiences with it. It is a doing definition. Should include: 1.how to measure it 2.what operation (job or task) will be performed 3. tells what observation you will make What is a car? A car is a means of transportation that runs off of fuel or electricity and operates through the trained skills of a human driver.

Investigating 1. Select the question or pattern you are investigating 2. Write an If…then…. Statement (hypothesis) that tells what you think the answer is to the question or pattern 3. Describe the design of the investigation -the independent variable (what you will change and how you will change it) -the dependent variable (what you will observe/measure) -the controlled variable (what you keep the same) 4. Carry out the investigation according to your design. 5. Report the data you collected in a table. 6. Construct a graph to show your data. 7. State relationships you observed between the variables. 8. Compare your results to your hypothesis. 9. State if your hypothesis was supported or refuted by your investigation. ACCEPT or REJECT

Investigating 1. Will Rockstar help a plant grow faster and bigger? 2. If I add 10 mL of Rockstar everyday to a plant, then it will grow faster and taller than another plant that did not receive Rockstar. 3.I will plant seeds in 2 separate pots. I will place both pots on the window sill and water/fertilize both plants the same, but one will also receive 10 mL of Rockstar everyday. I will use a ruler and measure the height of both plants each day for 1 month to see if Rockstar makes a difference in the growth of plants. 4. I will follow this plan precisely. 5. I will record my daily measurements into a daily height chart. 6. I will construct a line graph to show my data after 1 month. 7. Result: Rockstar killed my plant! 8. My variable plant did not respond according to my hypothesis 9. My hypothesis was refuted by my investigation.

Classifying We classify when we use observations to group or sort objects or elements according to similarities and differences..

Classifying Swallowtails Whites and Sulfurs Skippers Gossamer Winged Brushfooted

Measuring We measure when we compare to standard or nonstandard units. The basic units for measuring are length, mass, volume, and time (All units come from these things). Standard Unit Example:Non-Standard Unit Example: Who’s taller?

Inferring We infer when we use past experiences to draw conclusions and make explanations about events not directly observed. There are darks clouds approaching. Therefore, it will be storming soon.

Predicting We predict when we make a forecast about what will happen in the future. Predictions are based on prior knowledge gained through experiences and data that is collected. I predict that by tomorrow afternoon the river will crest above flood stage. I predict this because our area has received 8 inches of rain in the last 2 days, and that is what happened to the river last spring.

Making Models We make models when we develop a physical or conceptual representation to explain an idea, object or event. Anything that is not real, but is a representation of an actual thing can be called a model. To make a Model: 1.Find out about an object or event 2.Think about what you could do to represent the object or event 3.Construct the model 4.Compare your model to the actual object or event.

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