Presentation on theme: "TEACHING MARKSMANSHIP TO CADETS"— Presentation transcript:
1 TEACHING MARKSMANSHIP TO CADETS JROTC Marksmanship Instructor Course, Section VIJROTC Marksmanship Instructor Course (JMIC)Section VI: Teaching Basic MarksmanshipThis session examines the principles that are recommended for teaching basic rifle marksmanship skills to new shooters. The presentation looks at how applying these principles can help instructors teach marksmanship to JROTC cadets more effectively.Additional Resources:JMIC Marksmanship Training SyllabusAir Rifle Safety and Marksmanship, AJROTC LET Unit 7 curriculum (available from Army Cadet Command)U. S Marine Corps JROTC Core Curriculum (available from USMC TECOM)Session VI, Revised 4Aug13, CMP
2 Teaching Marksmanship to Cadets (Coaching New Shooters) Section Objective:To review the principles and guidelines for teaching basic marksmanship to JROTC cadets6.1 Section Objective: Teaching Basic MarksmanshipThe objective of this session is to identify the basic principles and guidelines that should be applied in teaching basic air rifle marksmanship skills to JROTC Cadets.
3 Rifle Marksmanship Curricula JMIC Instructional Material for Cadets:Section II, Introduction to JROTC MarksmanshipSection V, Air Rifle SafetySection VII, Learning Rifle Marksmanship SkillsVII, A, Shot Technique and Familiarization FiringVII, B, Standing PositionVII, C, Use of the Sling and Prone PositionVII, D, Kneeling PositionSection VIII, Marksmanship Opportunities and ChallengesSection IX, Becoming a Better Shooter6.2 Basic Marksmanship Course CurriculumThe starting point for teaching rifle marksmanship is to use training material designed and written specifically for the purpose of teaching new or entry-level shooters. JROTC instructors are encouraged to base their lesson plans on the curriculum material provided in Section VII of this course. The instructional curricula provided by the respective Cadet Commands also can be used as an excellent resource for marksmanship instruction.JMIC Instructional Material for Cadets. Three sections of this course are designed to be used as an instructional curriculum to introduce marksmanship as a sport and to teach safety, basic shooting positions and firing techniques to entry-level shooters. The slides and notes for these sections can be used to make presentations on fundamental skills to cadets.Instructional Resources:Army JROTC Unit 7 Curriculum. The air rifle marksmanship curriculum adopted by the Army Cadet Command is LET Unit 7. This curriculum offers both a Student Guide and an Instructor’s Guide. All units with marksmanship programs should distribute the Student Guide, Unit 7: Air Rifle Safety and Marksmanship, to cadets and give them an opportunity to study it as part of their training. Unit 7 has ten different lessons that start with an introduction to marksmanship, examine gun safety and then introduce the basic shooting positions and technical skills cadets need to master to complete a three-position course of fire. These are the requisite skills to complete qualification course firing or to enter one’s first competitions.USMC JROTC. MCJROTC has adopted the Army LET Unit 7 curriculum, which is available to MCJROTC instructors as part of its Core Student Text.Navy JROTC. NJROTC has adopted its own official curriculum that is also an excellent resource for teaching marksmanship to NJROTC cadets.
4 Instructional Options I. Safety and Familiarization FiringIntroduction to marksmanshipSafety and range proceduresFamiliarization firing in supported positionII. Basic Marksmanship Course (I + the following)Firing in standing positionUse of the slingFiring in the prone (and kneeling) position(s)Qualification firingIII. Rifle Team Activities (I + II + the following)Additional Instruction in three-position firingPractice firing on regular basisJROTC Postals/other competitions6.3 Instructional Options:JROTC units and instructors that offer rifle marksmanship programs must tailor their programs to fit within their overall JROTC instructional and activity priorities. Different units will have different marksmanship programs. The “Instructional Options” here show the general range of marksmanship instructional options that are available to meet the priorities of each unit.Safety and Familiarization Firing. The first option is geared to giving maximum numbers of cadets a basic experience in gun safety and air rifle marksmanship. The instruction given in this option should cover a marksmanship introduction, safety, the supported position and the basics of aiming, breath control and trigger control.Basic Marksmanship Course. A second option is to give instruction covering familiarization firing and the three firing positions. This introduces both the standing and prone positions and may include kneeling. Instruction at this level gives cadets the knowledge and skills needed to do qualification firing.Rifle Team Activities. A third option is to give instruction and practice firing opportunities in all three positions. This gives cadets the knowledge needed not only to do qualification firing, but also to participate in rifle team activities.
5 Target OptionsPrinciple: Start with big targets--target must be large enough to contain all well aimed shotsMisses are negative—hits are positiveRecommend BMC TargetGraduate to AR Target when shot groups fit scoring rings6.4 Target Options:A critical teaching principle to observe in teaching marksmanship is to start with big targets that are specifically designed for new shooters. The fundamental principle is that targets for new shooters must be big enough that they can contain all well-aimed shots.Misses are Negative—Hits are Positive. When a new school-age shooter begins to fire in the standing, kneeling and even prone positions, it is very unusual for them to be able to shoot groups that would keep all shots in the scoring rings on the regulation air rifle target whose largest scoring ring is 1.8 inches in diameter. With this target, a new shooter may perform the lessons taught very well and still hit the target less than half of the time. The message that shooter receives is that they failed more than half of the time.The BMC Target is Designed For New Shooters. The BMC target, whose largest scoring ring is slightly over 7.0 inches, is designed for new shooters. Almost every shooter who applies the first lessons of target shooting will score hits on this target with every shot that is properly performed. The message that shooter receives is that they have succeeded. The BMC target is the recommended target for starting new shooters. It can be ordered from the CMP (see CMP Target Order Form).Graduate to the Regulation Target. When BMC targets are used, it is also important to advance new shooters to the 10-bull regulation target when they are ready for it. The best standard for graduating to the advanced target is when the shooter’s shot groups are all inside the eight ring.
6 Front Sight InsertsTarget air rifle front sights use interchangeable insertsFor new shooters-- select the largest ringAdvanced shooters--should be able to keep bull within ring while firingPost insert--not normally used (service rifle use)6.5 Front Sight InsertsAll of the sporter class air rifles used by JROTC units are supplied with front sights that accept interchangeable front sight inserts. Inserts commonly supplied with these rifles include a series of ring inserts and one or two post inserts. For new shooters, the best practice is to use the largest ring insert available for these sights.Advanced shooter may select smaller inserts, but it is important not to ever select a front sight insert that is too small. In principle the ring should be large enough to contain the movements of the bulls-eye while doing final aiming to fire the shot.Post front sight inserts are normally not used for air rifle target shooting although there are exceptions.
7 Preparation for Shooting Check dominant eye--determine right or left handed firingIdentify cross-dominant shooters (attach blinders)Fit stock lengths to shootersGive loading instructionsDemonstrate supported positionTeach basic shot techniqueSight alignmentBreath ControlSight pictureTrigger control6.6 Preparation for ShootingAfter safety instruction is completed and it is time to take cadets to the range to begin live firing, there are some preliminary steps that should be covered to be sure they are ready for firing and will obtain the best possible results.Cadets who have never fired before need to decide which shoulder and eye to use for firing. It is recommended that a dominant eye test be conducted and that new firers shoot from the same shoulder as their dominant eye.Some cadets will not be comfortable with doing this and will want to shoot from the opposite shoulder as their dominant eye. Cross-dominant shooters must be identified.Matching stocks with appropriate lengths of pull with shooters size will make it much easier for them to get into comfortable firing positions.Be sure new shooter know how to load their air rifles before going to the firing line.Also be sure to give them instruction in the firing position and basic shot technique that they will need to apply to fire their first shots.
8 Before You Start: Which Eye/Shoulder to Use? Step 1: Use a card with a dime-sized hole. Hold it away from you and look at a distant object with both eyes open.Answer: Shoot from the same shoulder as your dominant eye. Do an eye dominance test to determine which eye and shoulder you should use.Step 2: Bring the card back to your eyes while continuing to focus on the distant object. The hole will be drawn to your dominant eye. Shoot from that same shoulder.6.7 Which Eye and Shoulder Should You Use for Rifle Shooting?A beginning rifle shooter must first decide which shoulder and eye to use for holding and aiming the rifle. Most shooters shoot right handed, that is, they hold the rifle on their right shoulder and aim with their right eye. Many others, however, shoot left handed. Approximately 15 percent of the general population is left eye dominant and/or left handed and most likely would develop rifle marksmanship skills better by firing from the left shoulder and aiming with the left eye.Which eye and shoulder should you use for rifle shooting? Sports medicine research has shown that shooters who shoot from the same shoulder as their dominant eye more readily achieve success at the highest competition levels.The first step in learning rifle marksmanship skills is to make this decision. Do it by using a simple dominant eye test. After you determine which eye is your dominant eye, it is best to use that eye and shoulder to hold the rifle and aim.
9 For Cross-Dominant Shooters Cross-dominance: Aiming with non-dominant eyeSolution: Attach a 30x100mm blinder to the rear sight6.8 For Cross-Dominant ShootersSome individuals are may still want to fire from the shoulder that is opposite their dominant eye. This creates a cross-dominance situation that usually requires accommodation. There is no special disadvantage in doing this, but new cross-dominant shooters will sometimes try to aim with their non-aiming eye, which will cause them to miss the target completely, or they will squint and strain to close their non-aiming, dominant eye. To facilitate shooting by cross-dominant shooters, the best solution is to attach a 30x100 mm blinder to the rear sight. The blinder, cut from a plastic milk container ,should be attached to the rear sight to block the view of the non-aiming eye.
10 Air Rifle Stock Fit Correct stock length facilitates learning Rifle numberCorrect stock length facilitates learningHave stocks of variable length availableMatch stock lengths to shooters—bent arm test is good indicatorHave shooters use same rifle each day6.9 Air Rifle Stock Fit:One of the most important principles to observe in teaching marksmanship is to start students with rifles that are size and weight appropriate. Size appropriate means having a rifle with the correct stock length. If the stock is either too long or too short, the shooter will struggle with the rifle and probably will not do well, especially if the stock is too long.Correct Stock Length Facilitates Learning. Remember that providing air rifles with the correct stock length to each cadet really does facilitate learning.Have Rifles with Different Stock Lengths. Daisy air rifle stocks come with spacers that can be removed or added to adjust stock length. Before air rifle instruction begins, set up the air rifles so that one or two air rifles each have no, one, two, three and possibly four spacers. Place a rifle number or identifier on the stocks so that cadets can identify and use the same rifle each time they fire.A Simple Stock Length Test. Match the varying stock lengths to the cadets according to their size. A quick, simple way to test stock length is to bend the right arm at a 90 degree angle and place the butt plate I the bend of the arm. If the stock length is correct, the shooters should be able to comfortably reach the pistol grip with the hand and naturally place the finger on the trigger.Spacers can be removed or added to adjust stock length
11 Preparation: Loading Instruction Teach loading procedure before first live firing:1. Open action2. Charge air (pneumatic), pause when fully open3. Place pellet on loading port--open end (skirt) to rear4. Close action6.10 Loading InstructionBefore new shooters go to the firing line to do their first live firing, it is important that they know how to load the air rifles they will be using. To do this, set up a brief instructional session where the proper method of loading is demonstrated. Doing this in small groups of three or four cadets and an instructor is the most effective method of doing as this makes it possible for the cadets to see close-up how to open the action, fully charge the air cylinder, position and load the pellet.
12 Rifle Practice Drills or Exercises Practice holding rifle in position while aiming at blank targetDry fire on a blank targetLive fire 3-5 shot groups on a blank target (objective: small shot groups)Holding/Dry fire on bull's-eye targetLive fire 3-5 shot groups on bull’s-eye target (objective: small shot groups)Adjust sights to center groups on target (Teach sight adjustment first)Shoot 5 or 10 shot series for score6.11 Rifle Practice Drills or Exercises:The process of practicing a new shooting position will be more successful if this is done in stages where specific types of practice repetitions are performed before moving on to the next stage. These developmental stages are:Holding on Blank Target. Reverse the targets and practice by holding the rifle in position while aiming at the center of the blank target.Dry Firing on Blank Target. Practice aiming and dry firing at the center of the blank target.Live Firing on Blank Target. Practice shooting groups on blank targets. Shoot 3 or 5 shot groups at first. The objective is to shoot as small a shot group as possible.Holding on Bullseye Target. Hang targets with bullseyes facing the shooters. Practice holding while aiming at the bullseyes.Dry Firing on Bullseye Target. Practice dry firing at the bullseyes.Live Firing on Bullseye Target. Practice shooting 3 or 5-shot groups on bullseye targets.Center Groups on Bullseye Target. Introduce sight adjustment; continue to shoot 3 or 5-shot groups until shot groups are centered on the bullseye targets.Shoot 10 Shot Series for Score. Shoot 10-shot series for score; this can be done on either the BMC or 10-bull targets. At this point, new shooter may have advanced so that they are ready for regulation targets.
13 Familiarization Firing Start in Supported PositionUse to teach basics of firing the shotFire from table or floor with supportSupport rifle with rest (kneeling roll, sandbag, etc.)Allows new shooter to concentrate on shot technique6.12 Familiarization Firing in the Supported Position:The recommended method of starting air rifle marksmanship instruction is to have new shooters do their initial firing in a supported position and to give them familiarization firing experience. In the supported position, the rifle, or hand holding the rifle, is supported on a sandbag rest (kneeling rolls can also be used for this purpose). Shooters can fire from either a prone supported position or while sitting behind a table, again with the rifle or fore arm supported by sandbags or a kneeling roll.Used for Teach Fundamentals. The supported position is typically used long enough to teach the fundamentals of firing the shot (aiming, breath control, trigger control) and sight adjustment. Charging and loading the air rifle while firing in the supported position is still relatively easy so it gives new shooters a good opportunity to become comfortable with their rifles and firing skills before advancing to other positions.Advantage—More Cadets Can Shoot. Especially in programs that seek to give large numbers of cadets a familiarization firing experience and where range time for each cadet is limited, using the supported position makes it possible to give successful, but shorter, firing experiences to more shooters.Graduate to Standing. If the supported position is used and cadets are going to continue in rifle marksmanship, it is important, just as it is in using the BMC target, to graduate cadets to the next level of marksmanship as soon as they are ready and the training schedule permits.
14 Correcting Serious Mistakes Failure to hit the target is unacceptableSerious New Shooter ErrorsCross-dominant shooter--aims with other eye Solution: Attach blinder to rear sightNot looking through rear sight aperture Solution: Instruction/close observationFlinching/Jerking Trigger Solution: Demonstration/dry firingShooting a rifle like a shotgun (point and shoot) Solution: Re-instruct on steps to fire shot, dry firingBe alert during first shot groups--if shooters do not hit targets, intervene immediately6.13 Correcting Serious MistakesWhen a group of new shooters does their first live firing at targets, there will be an occasional new shooter who does not hit the target at all or who fires shots wildly scattered on and off the target. It is important to be alert for these occurrences and to intervene immediately, especially if someone has fired a shot and it does not hit the target. The mistakes that can cause a shooter to fire extremely wild shots or to miss the target completely are correctable. Approach the new shooters’ first live firing activities with an understanding everyone can hit the target and fire good shot groups if they receive proper instruction and coaching.The most serious new shooter errors and how to deal with them are listed on the slide.
15 Position Sequence Start new shooters in Supported position 1st Regular Position: StandingEasiest, most natural position to learnMost important position to learnSuccessful if BMC target is usedCharging M853 easier in standingRequirement: Pellet holder (standing height)2nd Position: ProneIntroduce use of slingStanding and Prone scores required for Mks/SS qualification badges3rd Position: KneelingMost difficult position to teachAll three positions required for Expert qualification badges6.14 Recommended Position Sequence:With three different firing positions to teach, instructors must decide which position to teach first and which order to follow in teaching the positions. Traditional marksmanship instruction started with the prone position because it was steadier, but most marksmanship experts now recommend introducing the standing position immediately after familiarization firing in the supported position, because the standing position is easier to teach and more important to learn. The recommended teaching sequence for the three firing positions is to introduce the standing position immediately after familiarization firing in the supported position is successfully completed. Considerations for doing this are:Standing First. Standing is the easiest and most natural firing position to teach. While the position is not as steady as prone, using the BMC target for initial firing will ensure that new shooters get hits and positive feedback. An important consideration is that charging the pneumatic air rifle is much easier for a new shooter in the standing position than in the other positions. Teaching standing also requires that sufficient time be available for practice to allow time for numerous holding, dry firing and firing exercises. A critical safety issue is to provide some type of pellet holder so that cadets do not have to place pellets on the floor and reach down to get them during reloading.Prone Second—Kneeling Third. The sling positions, prone and kneeling are more complicated and should be taught after standing and in that order. The use of the sling must be taught before trying either position.
16 Teaching Firing Positions Position Foundation Standing--foot position Prone--body position on mat Kneeling--body position on kneeling rollElbow Location (left elbow for right handed shooters)Head & Butt-Plate PositionAdjust Rifle Height (sights to target level)Tighten Sling (prone & kneeling)Orient position on target (natural point of aim)6.15 Teaching Firing PositionsIt is recommended that instructors follow a strict sequence of position development in teaching each firing position. If this sequence is followed, new shooters will almost invariably end up with a sound and relatively stable position. This sequence needs to be taught in order because each successive teaching point depends upon first performing the teaching point before it correctly. The development sequence is:Establish the position foundation. In this step the body and its support surfaces are oriented in relation to the target.Fix the location of the left elbow (right handed shooters). The rest of the position is built upon this fixed point.Shoulder the rifle and place the butt-plate in the shoulder in such a way that the head is reasonably erect. Getting a good, reasonably erect head position is a key to success in any firing position.Adjust the height of the rifle so that the sights point at the level of the target by moving the left hand forward or rearward on the fore-end in prone and kneeling or by changing the hand-wrist configuration in standing.In prone and kneeling positions, the sling is tightened only after fixing the elbow, butt-plate and left hand positions.Finally, orient the position onto the correct target. In prone and kneeling, this means rotating the entire position around its pivot point. In standing, it simply means settling the rifle down onto the correct target.
17 Teaching Sling Positions Start with sling onStart with sling long and looseEstablish the position foundationLocate left elbowPosition head & butt-plateAdjust rifle heightTighten slingRotate position to target6.16 Teaching Sling PositionsWhen teaching the prone and kneeling positions to JROTC cadets, the use of the sling should never be regarded as optional. The proper use of the sling will make these positions much more stable. The use of the sling is often not taught because it seems complicated. However, if Instructors follow this sequence in teaching the use and adjustment of the sling, cadets will quickly master its use and benefit from knowing proper use of the sling. The instructions in JMIC are based on the issue sling that comes with the Daisy air rifles that are available for JROTC marksmanship. Follow the steps listed in the slide in teaching the sling positions.
18 Introducing a Firing Position #3, butt-plate up in shoulder to keep head erectFundamental Principle: Teach only the minimum information necessary to build a sound position.The illustration shows the teaching points needed for standing.#4, adjust hand-wrist to raise sights to target#2, place elbow on side, under rifle6.17 Introducing a Firing PositionThe fundamental teaching principle to follow when introducing a new firing position to cadets who have never fired that position before is to teach only the minimum information necessary to get them into a sound position. The illustration above shows how only four teaching points can get a new shooter into an excellent standing position. A corollary to this teaching principle is to never try to teach additional or advanced teaching points to a new shooter. Save those points for later after the new shooter has enough practice with the new position to begin to feel comfortable with it (see the next slide).#1, Turn the feet & body 90 degrees from the target
19 Positive Repetitions—Not Magic Shooting skills are developed through positive repetitions of correctly executed positions, shots and techniquesBelieve in practice—it is the real difference makerGive positive corrections, highlight the correct action, not the incorrect one6.19 Positive Repetitions—Not Magic:One of the reasons target shooting has become such a popular sport around the world is that it is one sport where physical size, strength or speed make little or no difference and where practice or work ethic is everything. The fundamental principle for developing shooting skills is to repeat them correctly. The more times a skill or position is repeated correctly, the better that shooter will perform that skill.Coaches need to teach their shooters to believe in practice. Positive repetitions of shooting skills is the only real difference maker in determining who will be the most successful shooters.Another key to shooter development is to keep the teaching, practice and competition environment as positive as possible. Corrections should always be given by highlighting the correct way to do something, not by admonishing shooters to not repeat a mistake. Negatively highlighting a mistake only reinforces it for future repetitions. Shooting is a sport of the mind; when the environment is positive and corrections are given in positive ways, shooters will progress faster.