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INPUT/OUTPUT PRINTER,SCANNER AND MONITOR

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Presentation on theme: "INPUT/OUTPUT PRINTER,SCANNER AND MONITOR"— Presentation transcript:

1 INPUT/OUTPUT PRINTER,SCANNER AND MONITOR
Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

2 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
What Is Input? What is input? Any data or instructions you enter into the memory of the computer Users can input data and instructions in a variety of ways Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

3 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
What Is Input? What are two types of input? DATA Bradley Kinkade 42 hours $12.50 per hour Data A collection of raw unprocessed facts, figures, and symbols Instructions Programs Commands User responses COMMANDS print the timecard PROGRAMS timecard USER RESPONSES Yes, the timecard entries are correct No, the timecard entries are not correct hard disk INSTRUCTIONS Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

4 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
What is Input? What are the three forms of instructions? Program A series of instructions that tells a computer how to perform the tasks necessary to process data into information User response An instruction you can issue by replying to a question that a computer program displays Command An instruction given to a computer program Users can issue commands by typing or pressing keys on the keyboard, clicking a mouse button, speaking into a microphone, or touching an area of a screen Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

5 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
What is Input? What are two features of most programs today? Menu-driven program Provides menus as a means of entering commands Menus contain a list of options from which you select Graphical user interface (GUI) Uses icons, buttons, and other graphical objects that allow you to select and issue commands icons menu buttons Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

6 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
What are Input Devices? What is an input device? Any hardware component that allows you to enter data, programs, commands, and user responses into a computer voice input video input keyboard scanners and reading devices pointing device digital camera Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

7 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
The Keyboard What is a keyboard? An input device that contains keys you press to enter data into the computer Typing area Letters of the alphabet, numbers, punctuation marks, and other basic keys Numeric keypad Calculator-style arrangement of keys function keys typing area Function keys Special keys programmed to issue commands to a computer numeric keypad Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

8 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
The Keyboard What are some special types of keys? SHIFT, CTRL, ALT and others Used in combination with other keys to issue commands Toggle key Switches between two different states such as the NUM LOCK or CAPS LOCK keys Keys to position the insertion point Insertion point is a symbol that indicates where on the screen the next character you type will display insertion point pointer Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

9 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
The Keyboard What is an ergonomic keyboard? Designed to minimize strain on your hands and wrists Ergonomics incorporates comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of items in the workplace Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

10 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Pointing Devices What is a pointing device? I-beam An input device that allows you to control a pointer on the screen A pointer is a small symbol on the screen The pointer takes several shapes block arrow pointing hand Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

11 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Mouse What is a mouse? A pointing device that fits comfortably under the palm of your hand The most widely used pointing device on desktop computers The mouse controls the movement of the pointer, also called the mouse pointer, on the screen Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

12 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Mouse mouse pad How does a mechanical mouse work? A rubber or metal ball is on its underside When the ball rolls in a certain direction, electronic circuits in the mouse translate the movement of the mouse into signals the computer understands mouse buttons wheel button ball A mouse pad provides better traction and protects the ball from a build up of dust and dirt Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

13 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Mouse How does an optical mouse work? Uses devices that emit and sense light to detect the mouse’s movement Some use optical sensors; others use laser More precise than a mechanical mouse and does not require cleaning Slightly more expensive wheel button back button forward button optical sensor Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

14 Other Pointing Devices
What are some common mouse operations? Move the mouse across a flat surface until the pointer on the desktop rests on the item of choice Point Point Click Right-click Double-click Drag Right-drag Rotate wheel Press wheel button Press and release the primary mouse button, which usually is the left mouse button Click Press and release the secondary mouse button, which usually is the right mouse button Right-click Quickly press and release the left mouse button twice without moving the mouse Double-click Roll the wheel forward or backward Rotate wheel Press the wheel button while moving the mouse on the desktop Press wheel button Point to an item, hold down the right mouse button, move the item to the desired location on the screen , and then release the right mouse button Right-drag Point to an item, hold down the left mouse button, move the item to the desired location on the screen, and then release the left mouse button Drag Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

15 Other Pointing Devices?
What is a trackball? A stationary pointing device with a ball on its top To move the pointer, you rotate the ball with your thumb, fingers, or the palm of your hand trackball Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

16 Other Pointing Devices
What is a touchpad? Also called a trackpad A small flat, rectangular pointing device that is sensitive to pressure and motion Typically built onto keyboards of laptop or notebook computers touchpad Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

17 Other Pointing Devices
What is a stylus? Looks like a ballpoint pen, but uses pressure to write text and draw lines Originally called a pen or electronic pen stylus or pen Used in professional graphical applications A graphics tablet, also called a digitizer or digitizing tablet, is a flat rectangular, electronic plastic board used with a stylus Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

18 Other Pointing Devices
What is handwriting recognition software? Some notebooks and many handheld computers have touch screens that allow you to input data using a stylus Software translates handwritten letters and symbols into characters that the computer understands Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

19 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Voice Input What is audio input? The process of entering any sound into the computer such as speech, music, and sound effects Requires a sound card Input sound via a device such as a microphone, tape player, CD player, or radio Windows stores audio files as waveforms Called WAV files with a .wav extension Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

20 Natural Language Engine
Voice Input How does voice recognition work? You’re right! Step 4: To narrow a list down, the software presents the user with a list of choices or uses a natural language component to predict the most likely match. The user may correct any wrong selection made by the software. Step 3: The software compares the spoken measurements to those in its database to find a match or list of possible matches. Step 1: User dictates text into microphone. Step 2: An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) translates sound waves into digital measurements the computer can understand. Measurements include pitch, volume, silences, and phenomes. Phenomes are sound units such as aw and guh. …Your write …You’re right …Your right Natural Language Engine your, you’re right, write Matches Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

21 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Voice Input What is MIDI? An external device such as an electronic piano keyboard used to input music and other sound effects Music is stored in the computer Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

22 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Digital Cameras What is a digital camera? Allows you to take pictures and store the photographed images digitally Images are viewable immediately on the camera You can download, or transfer a copy of the pictures from the camera to the computer Images can be edited, printed, or posted on a Web site or photo community Ima Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

23 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Digital Cameras What is resolution? The sharpness and clearness of an image The higher the resolution, the better the image quality, but the more expensive the camera A pixel (picture element) is a single point in an electronic image In digital images the pixel is a tiny square The greater the number of pixels, the better the quality of the image Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

24 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Video Input What is video input? The process of entering a full-motion recording into a computer and storing it on a storage medium Also called video capture digital video camera video-in plug A video capture card is an expansion card that converts the analog video signal into a digital signal that a computer can understand A digital video (DV) camera is a video camera that records video as digital signals analog video camera Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

25 A card that decompresses video data
Video Input What are some factors related to video input? Video files can require huge amounts of storage space Video compression is used to decrease the size of the files Files can be compressed using software or hardware video decoder A card that decompresses video data video digitizer Used to capture an individual frame from an analog video and then save the picture in a file Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

26 Scanners and Reading Devices
What is a scanner? A device that captures data directly from source documents A source document is the original form of the data Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

27 Scanners and Reading Devices
What is an optical scanner? Usually called a scanner A light-sensing input device that reads printed text and graphics and then translates the results into a form the computer can use A flatbed scanner, a more popular type, works similarly to a copy machine except it creates a file of the document in memory instead of a paper copy Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

28 Scanners and Reading Devices
What is optical character recognition (OCR)? A technology that involves reading typewritten, computer-printed, or handwritten characters from ordinary documents and translating the images into a form that the computer can understand OCR device Includes a small optical scanner for reading characters and sophisticated software for analyzing what is read Software Works with an optical scanner to convert a scanned image into a text file that can be edited Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

29 Scanners and Reading Devices
What is a bar code scanner? Uses laser beams to read bar codes Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

30 Input Devices for Physically Challenged Users
Why are computers important for those with physical limitations? Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires any company with 15 or more employees make reasonable attempts to accommodate the needs of physically challenged workers Many input devices address the needs of users with physical limitations Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

31 Input Devices for Physically Challenged Users
What is a keyguard? A metal or plastic plate placed over the keyboard Allows users to rest their hands on the keyboard without accidentally pressing any keys Also guides a finger or pointing device so a user presses only one key at a time For users with limited hand mobility Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

32 Input Devices for Physically Challenged Users
What is an on-screen keyboard? A graphic of a standard keyboard that displays on the user’s screen A pointing device is used to press the keys Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

33 Input Devices for Physically Challenged Users
What options are available for users with motor disabilities? A handheld switch can be used as a pointing device A portable computer or pointing device can be mounted to a wheelchair People with limited hand movement can use a head-mounted pointer Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

34 Input Devices for Physically Challenged Users
What are new developments in computing that will benefit physically challenged users? Developments now in the prototype stage attempt to provide users with a natural computer interface Gesture recognition Computer will be able to detect human motions Computers with this capabilities have the potential to recognize sign language, read lips, track facial movements, or follow eye gazes Implantation For paralyzed or speech impaired individuals A doctor will implant a computerized device containing a transmitter into the brain As the users thinks, the transmitter will send signals to the computer Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

35 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
What is Output? What is output? Data that has been processed into a useful form, called information A computer generates several types of output Text Graphics Video Audio Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

36 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
What is Output? What is text? Consists of characters that create words, sentences, and paragraphs What is a graphic? Also called a graphical image A digital representation of non-text information such as a drawing, chart, and photograph Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

37 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
What is Output? What is audio? Music, speech, or any other sound Consists of full-motion images that are played back a various speeds Most video also has accompanying audio What is video? Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

38 What are Output Devices?
What is an output device? Any hardware component that can convey information to a user monitor speakers printer Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

39 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Display Devices What is a display device? Also called a display An output device that visually conveys text, graphics, and video information Information on a display device is sometimes called soft copy Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

40 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Display Devices What is a CRT monitor? Contains a cathode ray tube (CRT), a large sealed, glass screen The screen is coated with tiny dots of phosphor material A pixel, or picture element, is a single point in an electronic image Three dots (red, blue, and green) combine to make up each pixel cathode ray tube screen CRT monitor Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

41 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Display Devices What are typical sizes for CRT monitors? 15, 17, 19, 21, and 22 inches Monitor measured diagonally from one corner of the casing to the other The viewable size is the diagonal measurement of the actual viewing area provided by the monitor screen size viewable size Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

42 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Display Devices What is a liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor? A type of flat-panel display Uses liquid crystals between two sheets of material to present information on a screen An electric current passes through the crystals which creates the images on the screen Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

43 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Display Devices Where are some features of LCD screens? Lightweight and compact Consumes less than one-third of the power than does a CRT monitor Come in a variety of sizes Ideal for notebook and handheld computers Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

44 Display Devices What is display resolution?
Describes the sharpness and clearness of an image Resolution of a display device stated as dots, or pixels 800 x 600 typically the standard 800 horizontal pixels 600 vertical pixels 1280 x 1024 maximum resolution of most monitors Total of 480,000 pixels on screen 2048 x 1536 maximum for high-end monitors Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

45 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Display Devices What is dot pitch? Another factor used to measure image clarity Sometimes called pixel pitch The distance between each pixel on a display The smaller the distance between the pixels, the sharper the image Use a monitor with a dot pitch of .29 millimeters or lower to minimize eye fatigue Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

46 Display Devices What is refresh rate?
Should be fast enough to maintain a constant, flicker-free image Another factor in a monitor’s quality Also called vertical frequency or vertical scan rate The speed that a monitor redraws images on the screen Measured according to hertz, which is the number of times per second the screen is redrawn A high-quality monitor will provide a refresh rate of at least 75 hertz The image on the screen redraws itself 75 times in a second Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

47 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Display Devices What is a video card? Converts digital output from the computer into an analog video signal Sends the signal through a cable to the monitor Controls how the display device produces the picture Also called a graphics card or video adapter Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

48 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Display Devices Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 1 Step 2 Step 4 Step 3 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 1 Step 2 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 1 Step 1 How does video travel from the processor to a CRT monitor? Step 1: The processor sends digital video data to the video card. Step 2: The video card’s digital-to-analog converter (DAC) converts the digital video data to an analog signal. Step 3: The analog signal is sent through a cable to the CRT monitor. Step 4: The CRT monitor separates the analog signal into red, green, and blue signals. Step 5: Electron guns fire the three color signals to the front of the CRT. Step 6: An image displays on the screen when the electrons hit phosphor dots on the back of the screen. Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

49 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Printers What is a printer? An output device that produces text and graphics on a physical medium such as paper or transparency film A hard copy, or printout, exists physically Two orientations portrait orientation landscape orientation Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

50 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Printers What is an ink-jet printer? A type of nonimpact printer that forms characters and graphics by spraying tiny drops of liquid ink onto a piece of paper Usually uses individual sheets of paper stored in a removable or stationary tray The most popular type of color printer for use in the home Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

51 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Printers What is the resolution of a printer? Also called sharpness and clarity Measured by the number of dots per inch (dpi) a printer can output 300 dpi 600 dpi 1,200 dpi Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

52 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Printers What is a laser printer? A high-speed, high-quality nonimpact printer Usually use individual sheet of paper stored in a removable tray Can print text and graphics in very high quality resolution, ranging from 600 to 1,200 dpi Typically costs more than ink-jet printers, but are much faster Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

53 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Printers How does a laser printer operate? Operates in a manner similar to a copy machine Creates images using a laser beam and powdered ink, called toner When toner runs out, you can replace the toner cartridge Toner cartridge prices range from $50 to $100 for about 5,000 printed pages Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

54 Printers What is a page description language?
A page description language (PDL) tells the printer how to layout the contents of a printed page Laser printers use a PDL to process and store the entire page before they actually print it so they are sometimes called page printers Laser printers require a certain amount of memory in the device to store a page before printing PCL (Printer Control Language) Developed by Hewlett-Packard A standard printer language that supports the fonts and layout used in standard office documents PostScript Designed for complex documents with intense graphics and colors Used by professionals in the desktop publishing and graphic art fields Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

55 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Printers What is a dye-sublimation printer? A type of thermal printer Also called a thermal dye transfer printer Uses heat to transfer colored dye to specially coated paper Cost several thousand dollars Can create images that are of photographic quality Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

56 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Printers What is a photo printer? Step 4: Remove the photo from the photo printer Step 3: Select desired image to print, number of copies, and size of print by pushing buttons on the photo printer. Step 1: Insert media card into digital camera. Take the photograph with your digital camera. Step 2: Remove the media card from the digital camera and insert it into the card slot on the photo printer A color printer that can produce photo lab quality pictures as well as printing everyday documents Many photo printers can read media directly from a digital camera Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

57 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Printers What is a large-format printer? Operates like an ink-jet printer, but on a much larger scale Creates photo-realistic quality color prints Used by graphic artists Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

58 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Speakers and Headsets What is an audio output device? A component of a computer that produces music, speech, or other sounds, such as beeps Two commonly used audio output devices are speakers and headsets speakers Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

59 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Speakers and Headsets What is Internet telephony? Voice output works with voice input Allows you to have a conversation over the Web, just as if you were on the telephone Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

60 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Other Output Devices What is a data projector? A device that takes the image from a computer screen and projects it onto a larger screen so an audience of people can see the image clearly Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

61 internal fax modem card in system unit
Other Output Devices What is a fax modem? A modem that allows you to send (and sometimes receive) electronic documents as faxes Transmits computer–prepared documents, such as a word processing letter, or documents that have been digitized with a scanner, or digital camera external fax modem internal fax modem card in system unit Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

62 intelligent terminals special-purpose terminals
What is a terminal? A device that performs both input and output because it consists of a monitor (output), a keyboard (input), and a video card Three basic categories dumb terminals intelligent terminals special-purpose terminals Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

63 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Terminals What is a dumb terminal? Has no processing power so it cannot function as an independent device Can enter and transmit data to, or receive and display information from, a computer to which it is connected Connect to a host computer that performs the processing and then sends the output back to the dumb terminal Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

64 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Terminals What is an intelligent terminal? Has memory and a processor that has the capability of performing some functions independent of the host computer Sometimes called programmable terminals because they can be programmed by the software developer to perform basic tasks Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

65 Introduction Computer Hardware Jess Role @UEAB 2006
Terminals What is a point-of-sale (POS) terminal? POS terminal Records purchases at the point where the consumer purchases a product or a service Output from POS terminals serve as input to other computers to maintain sales records, update inventory, verify credit, and perform other activities associated with the sales transactions that are critical to running the business Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006

66 Output Devices for Physically Challenged Users
What other output options are available for visually impaired users? Change Window’s settings such as increasing the size or changing the color of the text to make the words easier to read Blind users can work with voice output where the computer reads the information that displays on the screen A Braille printer outputs information in Braille onto paper Introduction Computer Hardware Jess 2006


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