Presentation on theme: "Do Right Now Define the term Absolute Ruler in your own words, then provide 3 examples of an Absolute Ruler."— Presentation transcript:
1 Do Right NowDefine the term Absolute Ruler in your own words, then provide 3 examples of an Absolute Ruler
2 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism Chapter 5, Section 1
3 A Powerful Spanish Empire A New Spanish RulerIn 1556, Philip II begins ruling Spain and its possessionsPhilip II’s EmpirePhilip seizes Portugal in 1580Gold and silver from Americas make Spain extremely wealthy
4 A Powerful Spanish Empire Defender of CatholicismPhilip defends Catholicism against Muslims and ProtestantsSpanish fleet helps defeat Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571.Spanish Armada is defeated by the British in 1588.
5 The Spanish Empire Weakens Inflation and TaxesInflation weakens Spain’s economy.Taxes on lower class prevents development of middle class.Making Spain’s Enemies RichSpaniards buy goods abroad, making Spain’s enemies rich.Philip declares bankruptcy three times due to weak economy.The Dutch RevoltProtestants in the Netherlands win independence from Spain in 1579.
6 The Independent Dutch Prosper Dutch Trading EmpireDutch merchants engage in world tradeDutch have world’s largest trading fleetDutch people replace Italians as Europe’s bankers
7 Absolutism in Europe The Theory of Absolutism Rulers want to be absolute monarchs—rulers with complete powerBelieve in “divine right”—idea that monarchs represent God on earth. (The idea can be derived from Romans 13: 1-4.)Growing Power of Europe’s MonarchsDecline of Feudalism, rise of cities help monarchs gain powerDecline of Church authority also increases powerCrises Lead to AbsolutismThe 17th century is a period of great upheavalMonarchs impose order by increasing their own power.
8 Possible Basis of “Divine Right of Kings” Romans 13:1-4 ”Let every person be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God. Therefore whoever resists the authorities resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment. For rulers are not a terror to good conduct, but to bad. Would you have no fear of the one who is in authority? Then do what is good, and you will receive his approval, for he is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servant of God, an avenger who carries out God’s wrath on the wrongdoer.”
10 Religious Wars and Power Struggles Henry of NavarreHenry, who was a French Calvinist (Huguenot) ascends to French throne in 1589 and converts to Catholicism ending the religious wars.Issues Edict of Nantes—a declaration of religious toleration
11 Religious Wars and Power Struggles Louis XIII and Cardinal RichelieuLouis XIII appoints Cardinal Richelieu in 1624 as minister who rules France.Increases power of the Bourbons by limiting Huguenots’ freedomAlso weakens power of the nobility
13 Louis XIV Comes to Power A New French RulerLouis XIV is the most powerful ruler in French history.Louis the Boy KingHatred of Cardinal Mazarin, Louis’ minister while he was a boy, leads to riots.
14 Louis Weakens the Nobles Authority Louis takes control of the government in 1661.He appoints intendants—government agents—to collect taxes.Economic GrowthJean Baptiste Colbert—finance minister—helps the economy grow. He believes in mercantilism.In 1685, Louis cancels Edict of Nantes; Huguenots flee France.
15 The Sun King’s Grand Style A Life of LuxuryLouis lives very well, with every meal a feast.Louis Controls the NobilityLouis keeps nobles at palace to increase his power over them.Builds magnificent palace at VersaillesPatronage of the ArtsVersailles is a center of arts during reign of Louis XIVPurpose of the arts is to glorify Louis
20 Louis Fights Disastrous Wars Attempts to Expand France’s BoundariesLouis fights wars in the 1660s and 1670s to expand France.1667-Invades Spanish Netherlands.1672-Invades Dutch Netherlands.In 1680s, many countries unite against him in League of AugsburgFrance is weakened by poor harvests, warfare, and high taxes.
21 Louis Fights Disastrous Wars War of Spanish SuccessionWar of Spanish Succession begins in 1701This war attempts to prevent the union of the French and Spanish throne.War ends in 1714; France and Spain lose some possessions.
22 Louis Fights Disastrous Wars Louis’s Death and LegacyLouis dies leaving mixed legacyRule makes France a major military and cultural power in EuropeHis wars and palace leave France with heavy debts.
23 Central European Monarchs Clash Chapter 5, Section 3
24 The Thirty Years’ War Rising Tension Bohemian Protestants Revolt Tension rises between Lutherans and Catholics in central EuropeBohemian Protestants RevoltIn 1618, Protestants revolt against Catholic Hapsburg rulers (Ferdinand II)Result in Thirty Years’ War—conflict over religion, land, power
25 Thirty Years’ War (continued) Hapsburg Triumphs (sometimes spelled “Habsburg”)From 1618 to 1630, Hapsburg armies have many victoriesTroops plunder many German villages
27 Thirty Years’ War (continued) Hapsburg DefeatsIn 1630, tide turns in favor of ProtestantsPeace of WestphaliaWar ruins German economy, greatly decreases populationPeace of Westphalia (1648) ends warTreaty weakens Hapsburgs, strengthens FranceTreaty introduces idea of negotiating terms of peaceBeginning of Modern StatesTreaty recognizes Europe as group of independent states
28 States Form in Central Europe Economic Contrasts with the WestEconomy in central Europe still based in serfs and agriculture.Several Weak EmpiresLandowning nobles in central Europe Block growth of kings’ power.Ottoman and Holy Roman Empires are also weak.
29 Austria Grows Stronger Hapsburgs in Austria take more lands, rule large empireMaria Theresa Inherits the Austrian ThroneMaria Theresa becomes empress of Austria and faces years of war.
30 The Pragmatic Sanction This document, The Pragmatic Sanction, declared that Maria Theresa would inherit the Austrian throne.
32 Prussia Challenges Austria The Rise of PrussiaHohenzollern rulers of Prussia build Europe’s best armyThey call themselves kings and become absolute monarchs.Nobles resist royal power, but king buys loyalty.Frederick the GreatFrederick the Great becomes king of PrussiaEnforces father’s military policies but softens some of his laws.
33 Frederick II (The Great) of Prussia. He was nicknamed “Old Fritz”.
34 Prussia Challenges Austria War of Austrian SuccessionIn 1740, Frederick starts war against Austria to gain Silesia.Maria Theresa resists Prussian power but loses Silesia in treaty.As a result of the war, Prussia becomes a major power in Europe.
35 Prussia Challenges Austria The Seven Years’ WarAustria allies with France against Britain and PrussiaIn 1756, Frederick attacks Saxony, launching Seven Years’ War.France loses colonies in North America, Britain gains India.
37 Section OpenerPeter the Great makes many changes in Russia to try to make it more like western Europe
38 The First Czar Ivan the Terrible Rule by Terror Rise of the Romanovs In 1533, Ivan the Terrible becomes king of RussiaStruggles for power with boyars—landowning nobles.Seizes power and is crowned czar, meaning “caesar”Rule by TerrorIn 1560, Ivan turns against boyars, kills them, seizes landsRise of the RomanovsIvan’s heir is weak, leading to period of turmoilIn 1613, Michael Romanov becomes czar
39 Peter the Great Comes to Power The Rise of PeterPeter the Great becomes czar in 1696, begins to reform RussiaRussia Contrasts with EuropeCut off geographically from EuropeCulturally isolated, little contact with western EuropeReligious differences widen gap
40 Peter Rules Absolutely Peter Visits the WestIn 1697, Peter visits western Europe to learn European waysPeter’s GoalGoal of westernization—using western Europe as a model for changePeter’s ReformsBrings Orthodox Church under state controlReduces power of great landownersModernizes army by having European officers train soldiers
41 Peter Rules Absolutely (continued) Westernizing RussiaIntroduces potatoesStarts Russia’s first newspaperRaises women’s statusAdopts Western fashionAdvances education
42 Peter Rules Absolutely (continued) Establishing St. PetersburgPeter wants a seaport that will make travel to West easier.Fights Sweden to win port on Baltic SeaIn 1703, begins building new capital called St. Petersburg.Building city takes many years, many serfs die in process.By the time of Peter’s death, Russia is force to be reckoned with in Europe
45 Church of the Savior on Spilt Blood, St. Petersburg, Russia
46 Parliament Limits English Monarchy Chapter 5, Section 5
47 Rulers’ Relations With Parliament James 1 ( )Argued with Parliament over moneyWould not change the Church of England to Puritan worshipAuthorized a new Bible version (known today at the “KJV” or “King James Version”
48 Rulers’ Relations With Parliament Charles I ( )Dissolved Parliament when they would not give him moneyForced to sign the Petition of Right when he called Parliament back in need of money.Ignored the Petition of Right when he wantedSparked the English Civil War with ParliamentTried for treason against Parliament and executed
49 Rulers’ Relations With Parliament Oliver Cromwell ( )Cromwell abolished the monarchy and the House of Lordslater he sent the remaining members of Parliament home and ruled as a dictator.
50 Rulers’ Relations With Parliament Charles II ( )Parliament invited Charles II to rulepassed habeas corpus, which limited king’s power to jail opponents.
51 Rulers’ Relations With Parliament James II ( )fought over appointment of Catholics to high office in violation of English law
52 Rulers’ Relations With Parliament William and Mary ( )governed as partners, with power of monarchy limited by Bill of Rights