Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Do Right Now Define the term Absolute Ruler in your own words, then provide 3 examples of an Absolute Ruler.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Do Right Now Define the term Absolute Ruler in your own words, then provide 3 examples of an Absolute Ruler."— Presentation transcript:

1 Do Right Now Define the term Absolute Ruler in your own words, then provide 3 examples of an Absolute Ruler

2 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
Chapter 5, Section 1

3 A Powerful Spanish Empire
A New Spanish Ruler In 1556, Philip II begins ruling Spain and its possessions Philip II’s Empire Philip seizes Portugal in 1580 Gold and silver from Americas make Spain extremely wealthy

4 A Powerful Spanish Empire
Defender of Catholicism Philip defends Catholicism against Muslims and Protestants Spanish fleet helps defeat Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571. Spanish Armada is defeated by the British in 1588.

5 The Spanish Empire Weakens
Inflation and Taxes Inflation weakens Spain’s economy. Taxes on lower class prevents development of middle class. Making Spain’s Enemies Rich Spaniards buy goods abroad, making Spain’s enemies rich. Philip declares bankruptcy three times due to weak economy. The Dutch Revolt Protestants in the Netherlands win independence from Spain in 1579.

6 The Independent Dutch Prosper
Dutch Trading Empire Dutch merchants engage in world trade Dutch have world’s largest trading fleet Dutch people replace Italians as Europe’s bankers

7 Absolutism in Europe The Theory of Absolutism
Rulers want to be absolute monarchs—rulers with complete power Believe in “divine right”—idea that monarchs represent God on earth. (The idea can be derived from Romans 13: 1-4.) Growing Power of Europe’s Monarchs Decline of Feudalism, rise of cities help monarchs gain power Decline of Church authority also increases power Crises Lead to Absolutism The 17th century is a period of great upheaval Monarchs impose order by increasing their own power.

8 Possible Basis of “Divine Right of Kings” Romans 13:1-4
 ”Let every person be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God. Therefore whoever resists the authorities resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment. For rulers are not a terror to good conduct, but to bad. Would you have no fear of the one who is in authority? Then do what is good, and you will receive his approval, for he is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servant of God, an avenger who carries out God’s wrath on the wrongdoer.”

9 The Reign of Louis XIV Chapter 5, Section 2

10 Religious Wars and Power Struggles
Henry of Navarre Henry, who was a French Calvinist (Huguenot) ascends to French throne in 1589 and converts to Catholicism ending the religious wars. Issues Edict of Nantes—a declaration of religious toleration

11 Religious Wars and Power Struggles
Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIII appoints Cardinal Richelieu in 1624 as minister who rules France. Increases power of the Bourbons by limiting Huguenots’ freedom Also weakens power of the nobility

12 Picture of Louis XIII

13 Louis XIV Comes to Power
A New French Ruler Louis XIV is the most powerful ruler in French history. Louis the Boy King Hatred of Cardinal Mazarin, Louis’ minister while he was a boy, leads to riots.

14 Louis Weakens the Nobles Authority
Louis takes control of the government in 1661. He appoints intendants—government agents—to collect taxes. Economic Growth Jean Baptiste Colbert—finance minister—helps the economy grow. He believes in mercantilism. In 1685, Louis cancels Edict of Nantes; Huguenots flee France.

15 The Sun King’s Grand Style
A Life of Luxury Louis lives very well, with every meal a feast. Louis Controls the Nobility Louis keeps nobles at palace to increase his power over them. Builds magnificent palace at Versailles Patronage of the Arts Versailles is a center of arts during reign of Louis XIV Purpose of the arts is to glorify Louis

16 Panoramic view of Versailles Palace

17 Another view of Versailles Palace

18 Drawing of Versailles from above

19 Queen’s Bed Chamber

20 Louis Fights Disastrous Wars
Attempts to Expand France’s Boundaries Louis fights wars in the 1660s and 1670s to expand France. 1667-Invades Spanish Netherlands. 1672-Invades Dutch Netherlands. In 1680s, many countries unite against him in League of Augsburg France is weakened by poor harvests, warfare, and high taxes.

21 Louis Fights Disastrous Wars
War of Spanish Succession War of Spanish Succession begins in 1701 This war attempts to prevent the union of the French and Spanish throne. War ends in 1714; France and Spain lose some possessions.

22 Louis Fights Disastrous Wars
Louis’s Death and Legacy Louis dies leaving mixed legacy Rule makes France a major military and cultural power in Europe His wars and palace leave France with heavy debts.

23 Central European Monarchs Clash
Chapter 5, Section 3

24 The Thirty Years’ War Rising Tension Bohemian Protestants Revolt
Tension rises between Lutherans and Catholics in central Europe Bohemian Protestants Revolt In 1618, Protestants revolt against Catholic Hapsburg rulers (Ferdinand II) Result in Thirty Years’ War—conflict over religion, land, power

25 Thirty Years’ War (continued)
Hapsburg Triumphs (sometimes spelled “Habsburg”) From 1618 to 1630, Hapsburg armies have many victories Troops plunder many German villages

26 Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (1619-1637)

27 Thirty Years’ War (continued)
Hapsburg Defeats In 1630, tide turns in favor of Protestants Peace of Westphalia War ruins German economy, greatly decreases population Peace of Westphalia (1648) ends war Treaty weakens Hapsburgs, strengthens France Treaty introduces idea of negotiating terms of peace Beginning of Modern States Treaty recognizes Europe as group of independent states

28 States Form in Central Europe
Economic Contrasts with the West Economy in central Europe still based in serfs and agriculture. Several Weak Empires Landowning nobles in central Europe Block growth of kings’ power. Ottoman and Holy Roman Empires are also weak.

29 Austria Grows Stronger
Hapsburgs in Austria take more lands, rule large empire Maria Theresa Inherits the Austrian Throne Maria Theresa becomes empress of Austria and faces years of war.

30 The Pragmatic Sanction
This document, The Pragmatic Sanction, declared that Maria Theresa would inherit the Austrian throne.

31 Maria Theresa of Austria

32 Prussia Challenges Austria
The Rise of Prussia Hohenzollern rulers of Prussia build Europe’s best army They call themselves kings and become absolute monarchs. Nobles resist royal power, but king buys loyalty. Frederick the Great Frederick the Great becomes king of Prussia Enforces father’s military policies but softens some of his laws.

33 Frederick II (The Great) of Prussia. He was nicknamed “Old Fritz”.

34 Prussia Challenges Austria
War of Austrian Succession In 1740, Frederick starts war against Austria to gain Silesia. Maria Theresa resists Prussian power but loses Silesia in treaty. As a result of the war, Prussia becomes a major power in Europe.

35 Prussia Challenges Austria
The Seven Years’ War Austria allies with France against Britain and Prussia In 1756, Frederick attacks Saxony, launching Seven Years’ War. France loses colonies in North America, Britain gains India.

36 Absolute Rulers of Russia
Chapter 5, Section 4

37 Section Opener Peter the Great makes many changes in Russia to try to make it more like western Europe

38 The First Czar Ivan the Terrible Rule by Terror Rise of the Romanovs
In 1533, Ivan the Terrible becomes king of Russia Struggles for power with boyars—landowning nobles. Seizes power and is crowned czar, meaning “caesar” Rule by Terror In 1560, Ivan turns against boyars, kills them, seizes lands Rise of the Romanovs Ivan’s heir is weak, leading to period of turmoil In 1613, Michael Romanov becomes czar

39 Peter the Great Comes to Power
The Rise of Peter Peter the Great becomes czar in 1696, begins to reform Russia Russia Contrasts with Europe Cut off geographically from Europe Culturally isolated, little contact with western Europe Religious differences widen gap

40 Peter Rules Absolutely
Peter Visits the West In 1697, Peter visits western Europe to learn European ways Peter’s Goal Goal of westernization—using western Europe as a model for change Peter’s Reforms Brings Orthodox Church under state control Reduces power of great landowners Modernizes army by having European officers train soldiers

41 Peter Rules Absolutely (continued)
Westernizing Russia Introduces potatoes Starts Russia’s first newspaper Raises women’s status Adopts Western fashion Advances education

42 Peter Rules Absolutely (continued)
Establishing St. Petersburg Peter wants a seaport that will make travel to West easier. Fights Sweden to win port on Baltic Sea In 1703, begins building new capital called St. Petersburg. Building city takes many years, many serfs die in process. By the time of Peter’s death, Russia is force to be reckoned with in Europe

43 “English Embankment,” St. Petersburg, Russia

44 Palace Square, St. Petersburg

45 Church of the Savior on Spilt Blood, St. Petersburg, Russia

46 Parliament Limits English Monarchy
Chapter 5, Section 5

47 Rulers’ Relations With Parliament
James 1 ( ) Argued with Parliament over money Would not change the Church of England to Puritan worship Authorized a new Bible version (known today at the “KJV” or “King James Version”

48 Rulers’ Relations With Parliament
Charles I ( ) Dissolved Parliament when they would not give him money Forced to sign the Petition of Right when he called Parliament back in need of money. Ignored the Petition of Right when he wanted Sparked the English Civil War with Parliament Tried for treason against Parliament and executed

49 Rulers’ Relations With Parliament
Oliver Cromwell ( ) Cromwell abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords later he sent the remaining members of Parliament home and ruled as a dictator.

50 Rulers’ Relations With Parliament
Charles II ( ) Parliament invited Charles II to rule passed habeas corpus, which limited king’s power to jail opponents.

51 Rulers’ Relations With Parliament
James II ( ) fought over appointment of Catholics to high office in violation of English law

52 Rulers’ Relations With Parliament
William and Mary ( ) governed as partners, with power of monarchy limited by Bill of Rights

Download ppt "Do Right Now Define the term Absolute Ruler in your own words, then provide 3 examples of an Absolute Ruler."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google