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By: Anitha Jacob PA-S November 8, 2000

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1 By: Anitha Jacob PA-S November 8, 2000
OTITIS MEDIA By: Anitha Jacob PA-S November 8, 2000

2 OTITIS MEDIA Definition: Presence of a middle ear infection
Acute Otitis Media: occurrence of bacterial infection within the middle ear cavity. Otitis Media with Effusion: presence of nonpurulent fluid within the middle ear cavity OM is the second most common clinical problem in childhood after upper respiratory infection.

3 EPIDEMIOLOGY Peak incidence in the first two years of life (esp months) Boys more affected girls 50% of children 1 yr of age will have at least 1 episode. 1/3 of children will have 3 or more infections by age 3 90% of children will have at least one infection by age 6. Occurs more frequently in the winter months

4 MICROBES AT FAULT!!! Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae(non-typeable) Moraxella catarrhalis Group A Streptococcus Staph aureus Pseudomonas aeruginosa RSV assoc. with Acute Otitis Media

5 Classification of Otitis Media
Acute Otitis Media: presents with fever, otalgia, and hearing loss Otitis Media with Effusion: evidence of middle ear effusion on pneumatic otoscopy Recurrent Otitis Media: inability to clear middle ear effusions Chronic Serous Otitis Media: presents as ‘fullness in the ear’, tinnitus, or another acute disease.

6 RISK FACTORS Upper Respiratory Infections Allergies
Craniofacial abnormalities (cleft palate) Down’s Syndrome Passive smoking

7 PATHOGENESIS This problem mainly deals with eustacian tube dysfunction. Otitis Media usually follows an URI in which there is edema of the eustacian tube, leading to blockage. Stasis of these middle ear secretions lead to infection and irritation Other factors: allergic rhinitis, nasal polyps, adenoidal hypertrophy

8 SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Neonates/Infants: change in behavior, irritability, tugging at ears, decreased appetite, vomiting. Children(2-4): otalgia, fever, noises in ears, cannot hear properly, changes in personality Children (>4): complain of ear pain, changes I personality

9 On Physical exam… The classic description for Otitis Media is an erythematic, opaque, bulging tympanic membrane with loss of anatomic landmarks including a dull/absent light reflex. Pneumatic Otoscopy: decreased tympanic membrane mobility

10 DIAGNOSIS Pneumatic Otoscopy: standard tool for diagnosis
Impedance Tympanometry: useful for MEE. Measures the resonance of the ear canal for a fixed sound as the air pressure is varied. Spectral Gradient Acoustic Reflectometry: measures the condition of the middle ear by assessing the response of the TM to a sound stimulus. Equivalent to tympanometry for dx of middle ear effusions

11 Diagnosis cont. Diagnostic tympanocentesis & myringotomy: involves puncturing the tympanic membrane and aspirating middle ear fluid to relieve pressure. Only used if the primary and secondary line treatment fail. With the increasing incidence of drug resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, CDC recommends the capacity of clinicians to be efficient in using tympanocentesis.

Toxic appearing child Failed treatment regimen with antibiotics Suppurative complications Immunosuppressed pt. Newborn infant in which the usual pathogens may not be the case.

Otitis externa Bullous myringitis Cerumen impaction Dental abscess Foreign body in ear canal Referred pain (parotid/tooth/lymphadenitis) Tonsilitis

14 TREATMENT Amoxicillin: 20-40 mg/kg/day tid for 10-14 days or,
Augmentin: 45 mg/kg/day po bid for days Auralgan: analgesic/adjunct for ear pain 2-4 drops tid

15 2nd Line Treatment Regimen
Cefzil Pediazole ( erythromycin/sulfisoxazole) Bactrim (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole These medications are used as secondary agents if the primary antibiotic has failed after 10 days and the symptoms persists.

16 COMPLICATIONS Hearing loss: conductive, sensoneural, mixed)
Acute mastoiditis: before the advent of antibiotics Chronic perforation of the TM Tympanosclerosis Cholesteatoma Chronic suppurative OM Cholesterol granuloma: ‘Blue drum syndrome’ Facial nerve paralysis

17 Complications cont… Intracranial complications Bacterial meningitis
Epidural abscess Subdural empyema Brain abscess Otitic hydrocephalus Lateral sinus thrombosis

18 REFERENCES Dornbrand, Laurie. Manual of Clinical Problems in Adult Ambulatory Care. 3rd ed., Hoberman, A., Paradise J. Acute Otitis Media: Diagnosis and Management in the Year Pediatric Annals : Nelson. Textbook of Pediatrics Pocket Companion Wetmore, R. Complications of Otitis Media. Pediatric Annals :

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