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Anatomy and Physiology 3/15 and 3/16

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy and Physiology 3/15 and 3/16"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy and Physiology 3/15 and 3/16
Review Blood Typing Genetics Review Hemostasis Review Leukemia Review Blood Related Genetic Diseases

2 Blood Typing Blood Type Problems 1-15 Blood Type Problems 1-3

3 Hemostasis, Leukemia and Blood Disorders

4 1. What is vasospasm and why is it important to hemostasis?
Vasospasm is a contraction of the smooth muscles in the walls of small blood vessels Vasospasm is important because it slows blood loss before any other system has a chance

5 2. What relationship does serotonin have with hemostasis?
Serotonin can cause contraction of smooth muscles in the blood vessels (vasospasm)

6 3. Describe the steps in formation of a platelet plug?
Break in vessel wall leads to blood escaping Platelets adhere to each other, to the broken vessel and to the exposed collagen Platelet plug slows/stops the blood loss

7 4. The major event in blood clot formation is the conversion of ___________ to ________________.
Fibrinogen  Fibrin

8 5. Describe the major steps in blood clot formation
Tissue Damage leads to Vasospasm Platelet Plug Formation Blood Clot Formation Prothrombin Activator activates Prothrombin Prothrombin is converted into Thrombin Thrombin helps convert Fibrinogen into Fibrin Fibrin threads interweave and form the clot

9 6. Why don’t massive clots form throughout the cardiovascular system?
Blood flow prevents massive clots by rapidly carrying excess thrombin away and keeping its concentration too low in any one place

10 7. What is the difference between a thrombus and an embolus?
Thrombus – abnormally forming blood clot in a vessel Embolus – a clot that dislodges and is carried away in the blood flow

11 8. What are some of the symptoms of Hemophilia?
Severe hemorrhage after minor injury Frequent Nosebleeds Large Intramuscular hematomas Blood in urine

12 9. What is the most common form of Hemophilia?
Hemophilia A

13 10. Why is hemophilia A more prevalent in males?
Hemophilia A is more prevalent in males because it is an X-linked recessive trait and because men only have one X chromosome, if it contains the allele for hemophilia A then the male has it. XH Y XH XH XH XH Y Xh XH Xh Xh Y

14 11. What is the treatment for Hemophilia A?
Replacing the coagulation factor VIII

15 12. What are some symptoms of von Willebrand Disease?
Tendency to bleed and bruise easily

16 13. How common is von Willebrand Disease and is it more prevalent in either sex?
1/100 people inherits a mutation in one of the four genes that encode the von Willebrand clotting factor 1/10,000 individuals actually develop the symptoms Same prevalence in males and females

17 14. What is von Willebrand Factor and why is it important?
Plasma protein secreted by endothelial cells lining blood vessels It is important because it enables platelets to adhere to damaged blood vessel walls

18 15. What complications may result from von Willebrand Disease?
Gastrointestinal and Urinary Tract bleeding Extra heavy menstrual bleeding

19 16. What is Factor V Leiden? Mutation in the gene that codes for clotting factor V

20 17. Why is Factor V Leiden so dangerous?
It can cause dangerous clots to form in the blood

21 18. What are some factors that can lead to dangerous blood clots?
Factor V Leiden Very long car rides Oral Contraceptives Grapefruit when taking oral contraceptives

22 19. What is the difference between Myeloid and Lymphoid Leukemia?
Myeloid Leukemia – cancer of myeloid cells Lymphoid Leukemia – cancer of lymphocytes

23 20. What are some of the most common symptoms of Leukemia?
Fatigue Headaches Nosebleeds Frequent Respiratory Infections Fever Bone Pain Bruising Slow Blood Clotting

24 21. What effects does leukemia have on red blood cells and platelets?
Red blood cells are reduced in number leading to anemia Platelet deficiency (Thrombocytopenia) leads to slow clotting, bruising and bleeding

25 22. What is the difference between Acute and Chronic leukemia?
Acute – appears suddenly, progresses rapidly and without treatment causes death within a few months Chronic - begins slowly, may remain undetected for months to years, without treatment life expectancy after symptoms develop is about three years

26 23. How do traditional cancer treatments work?
By destroying any cell that divides rapidly

27 24. How does the drug Gleevec work?
Targets only cancer cells Nestles into ATP binding sites on the enzyme tyrosine kinase which blocks the message for the cell to divide.

28 25. What are some other treatment options for leukemia?
Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplants

29 26. How has diagnosis been refined to increased treatment of leukemia?
Using DNA Microarray to identify the proteins that particular leukemic cells produce. Different types of proteins produced changes the treatment needed

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