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Carbon Footprint : Sustainability Indicators Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie_11: 2104164.

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Presentation on theme: "Carbon Footprint : Sustainability Indicators Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie_11: 2104164."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbon Footprint : Sustainability Indicators Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie_11:

2 CARBON FOOTPRINT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS SAMUEL A SUMADU -S ARKODIE |11 2/10 Spring 2015 SEES 510 Renewable Energy & Climate Change METU NCC I NTRODUCTION | SOURCES OF EMISSION | SOLUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE ACTIONS | C ONCLUSIONS Introduction Is a measure of our impact on the environment, and the climate, through our activities. The total set of greenhouse gas emissions are caused directly and indirectly by an individual, organization, event, or product.¹ How is it calculated? Summation of emissions resulting from every stage of a product or service’s lifetime (material production, manufacturing, use phase, and end-of-life disposal). Throughout a product’s lifetime, or lifecycle, different greenhouse gases (GHGs) may be emitted, such as methane and nitrous oxide, each with a greater or lesser ability to trap heat in the atmosphere. ¹ The Carbon Trust (2007) Carbon Footprinting.

3 CARBON FOOTPRINT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS SAMUEL A SUMADU -S ARKODIE |11 3/10 Spring 2015 SEES 510 Renewable Energy & Climate Change METU NCC I NTRODUCTION | SOURCES OF EMISSION | SOLUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE ACTIONS | C ONCLUSIONS Food Emissions On average, U.S. household food consumption emits 8.1 metric tons of CO ₂ e each year. The production of food accounts for 83% of emissions, while its transportation accounts for 11%.³ The emissions associated with food production consist mainly of carbon dioxide (CO ₂ ), methane (CH ₄ ), and nitrous oxide (NO ₂ ), which result primarily from agricultural practices.³ ² Weber, C. and R. Saunders (2008) Greenhouse Gases Emitted by Food ³ Weber, C. and H. Matthews (2008) Food miles and the Relative Climate Impacts of Food Choices in the United States.

4 CARBON FOOTPRINT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS SAMUEL A SUMADU -S ARKODIE |11 4/10 Spring 2015 SEES 510 Renewable Energy & Climate Change METU NCC I NTRODUCTION | SOURCES OF EMISSION | SOLUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE ACTIONS | C ONCLUSIONS Food Emissions Meat products have larger carbon footprints per calorie than grain or vegetable products because of the inefficient transformation of plant energy to animal energy.³ Ruminants such as cattle, sheep, and goats produced 141 million metric tons (mmt) in CO ₂ e of methane in the U.S. in 2012 through enteric fermentation (digestion). ⁴ ³ Weber, C. and H. Matthews (2008) Food miles and the Relative Climate Impacts of Food Choices in the United States. ⁴ U.S. EPA (2014) Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks:

5 CARBON FOOTPRINT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS SAMUEL A SUMADU -S ARKODIE |11 5/10 Spring 2015 SEES 510 Renewable Energy & Climate Change METU NCC I NTRODUCTION | SOURCES OF EMISSION | SOLUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE ACTIONS | C ONCLUSIONS Eating all locally grown foods for one year could save the GHG equivalent of driving 1,000 miles, while eating a vegetarian meal one day a week could save the equivalent of driving 1,160 miles.³ ³ Weber, C. and H. Matthews (2008) Food miles and the Relative Climate Impacts of Food Choices in the United States. Food Emissions

6 CARBON FOOTPRINT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS SAMUEL A SUMADU -S ARKODIE |11 6/10 Spring 2015 SEES 510 Renewable Energy & Climate Change METU NCC I NTRODUCTION | SOURCES OF EMISSION | SOLUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE ACTIONS | C ONCLUSIONS Food Emissions Small global shifts in meat eating could have a big impact– So what would happen if the entire world reduces its meat consumption? The impacts on global warming could actually be fairly significant — a difference of around 0.5°C or more. ⁵ ⁵ Plumer, B. (2015). Study: Going vegetarian can cut your food carbon footprint in half. Vox. Retrieved 5 May 2015, from going-vegetarian-could-cut-your-food-carbon-footprint-in-half

7 CARBON FOOTPRINT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS SAMUEL A SUMADU -S ARKODIE |11 7/10 Spring 2015 SEES 510 Renewable Energy & Climate Change METU NCC I NTRODUCTION | SOURCES OF EMISSION | SOLUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE ACTIONS | C ONCLUSIONS The energy that you use to live and move around came from the sun. Which is a more efficient way to transfer energy from the sun to you? 7 1.: 2.: 3.1 and 2 are equal Food for Thought

8 CARBON FOOTPRINT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS SAMUEL A SUMADU -S ARKODIE |11 8/10 Spring 2015 SEES 510 Renewable Energy & Climate Change METU NCC I NTRODUCTION | SOURCES OF EMISSION | SOLUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE ACTIONS | C ONCLUSIONS Household Emissions In the U.S., for each kilowatt hour of electricity generated, an average of 1.3 pounds of CO ₂ is released at the power plant. Coal releases 2.1 pounds, petroleum releases 2.0 pounds, and natural gas releases 1.3 pounds. Nuclear, solar, wind, and hydroelectric release no CO ₂ when they produce electricity, but emissions are released during upstream production activities (e.g., solar cells, nuclear fuels, cement production). ⁶ Residential electricity use in 2012 emitted mmt CO ₂ e, 11% of U.S. total. ⁶ Heating and cooling account for about 54% of the energy use in a typical U.S. Home. ⁶ Space heating with wood emits the least CO ₂ e (31.4 tons per million BTU) followed by 64.2 for natural gas, with the highest being for electric heaters. ⁷ ⁶ U.S. EPA (2014) Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 – 2012; U.S. EPA (2012) Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) Version 1.0; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (2000) Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation of Electric Power in the United States. ⁷ Houck, J., et al. (1998) Air Emissions from Residential Heating: The Wood Heating Option Put into Environmental Perspective.

9 CARBON FOOTPRINT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS SAMUEL A SUMADU -S ARKODIE |11 9/10 Spring 2015 SEES 510 Renewable Energy & Climate Change METU NCC I NTRODUCTION | SOURCES OF EMISSION | SOLUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE ACTIONS | C ONCLUSIONS Household Emissions In the U.S., for each kilowatt hour of electricity generated, an average of 1.3 pounds of CO ₂ is released at the power plant. Coal releases 2.1 pounds, petroleum releases 2.0 pounds, and natural gas releases 1.3 pounds. Nuclear, solar, wind, and hydroelectric release no CO ₂ when they produce electricity, but emissions are released during upstream production activities (e.g., solar cells, nuclear fuels, cement production). ⁶ Residential electricity use in 2012 emitted mmt CO ₂ e, 11% of U.S. total. ⁶ Heating and cooling account for about 54% of the energy use in a typical U.S. Home. ⁶ Space heating with wood emits the least CO ₂ e (31.4 tons per million BTU) followed by 64.2 for natural gas, with the highest being for electric heaters. ⁷ ⁶ U.S. EPA (2014) Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 – 2012; U.S. EPA (2012) Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) Version 1.0; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (2000) Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation of Electric Power in the United States. ⁷ Houck, J., et al. (1998) Air Emissions from Residential Heating: The Wood Heating Option Put into Environmental Perspective.

10 CARBON FOOTPRINT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS SAMUEL A SUMADU -S ARKODIE |11 10/10 Spring 2015 SEES 510 Renewable Energy & Climate Change METU NCC I NTRODUCTION | SOURCES OF EMISSION | SOLUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE ACTIONS | C ONCLUSIONS Personal Transportation Emissions However, diesel has 10% more Btu per gallon, which improves its fuel economy. The average passenger car emits 0.82 pounds of CO ₂ per mile driven. ⁶ ⁶ U.S. EPA (2014) Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 – 2012; Keoleian, G., et al. (1998) LCI Modeling Challenges and Solutions for a Complex Product System: A Mid-Sized Automobile. CSS98-07; U.S. EIA (2013) “Emission Factors and Global Warming Potentials.”; U.S. DOE, Alternative Fuels Data Center (2013) “Fuel Properties Comparison Chart.”; U.S. EPA (2014) Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through Cars and light trucks emitted 1.1 billion metric tons CO ₂ e, or 17% of the U.S total. ⁶ 2.Of the roughly 126,000 pounds of CO ₂ e emitted in a car’s lifetime (assuming 120,000 miles for a 1995 mid-sized sedan), 86% is from burning fuel. ⁶ 3.Gasoline releases 19.6 pounds of CO ₂ per gallon when burned, compared to 22.4 pounds per gallon for diesel. ⁶

11 CARBON FOOTPRINT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS SAMUEL A SUMADU -S ARKODIE |11 11/10 Spring 2015 SEES 510 Renewable Energy & Climate Change METU NCC I NTRODUCTION | SOURCES OF EMISSION | SOLUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE ACTIONS | C ONCLUSIONS Personal Transportation Emissions ⁹ U.S. EPA (2014) Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 – 2012; U.S. DOE, EERE (2014) “Driving More Efficiently.”; U.S. EPA (2009) “Household Emissions Calculator Frequently Asked Questions.”; U.S. DOT, Bureau of Transportation Statistics (2011) U.S. Passenger Miles ; U.S. EPA (2011) U.S. Transportation Sector Greenhouse Gas Emissions ; Vincent, W. and L. Jerram (2006) The Potential for Bus Rapid Transit to Reduce TransportationRelated CO2 Emissons. 1.Automobile fuel economy can improve 7-14% by simply observing the speed limit. Every 5 mph increase in vehicle speed over 50 mph is equivalent to paying an extra $0.26-$0.52 per gallon. ⁹ 2.Commercial aircraft GHG emissions vary according to aircraft type, length of trip, occupancy rates, and passenger and cargo weight, but totaled mmt CO ₂ e in ⁹ 3.The U.S. EPA estimated that the average domestic commercial flight in 2005 emitted 0.59 pounds of CO ₂ per passenger mile.24 Emissions per domestic passenger-mile decreased 53% from , due to increased occupancy and fuel efficiency. ⁹ 4.On average, trains release 0.46 pounds of CO ₂ e per passenger mile, but this varies with occupancy and the length of the trip. ⁹

12 CARBON FOOTPRINT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS SAMUEL A SUMADU -S ARKODIE |11 12/10 Spring 2015 SEES 510 Renewable Energy & Climate Change METU NCC I NTRODUCTION | SOURCES OF EMISSION | SOLUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE ACTIONS | C ONCLUSIONS Ways to Reduce Carbon Footprint ⁹ World Resources Institute (2003) U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Flow Chart. ⁽⁹⁾

13 CARBON FOOTPRINT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS SAMUEL A SUMADU -S ARKODIE |11 13/10 Spring 2015 SEES 510 Renewable Energy & Climate Change METU NCC I NTRODUCTION | SOURCES OF EMISSION | SOLUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE ACTIONS | C ONCLUSIONS Ways to Reduce Carbon Footprint ⁹ U.S. DOE, EERE (2009) “Gas Mileage Tips: Keeping Your Car In Shape.”; Levinson, R. (2012) The Case for Cool Roofs. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Heat Island Group.; U.S. EPA (2014) Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator.; U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (2013) Residential Energy Consumption Survey Eat local, vegetarian, or organic foods. For non-vegetarians, replace some beef consumption with chicken. 2.Walk, bike, carpool, use mass transit, or drive a best-in-class vehicle. ⁹ 3.Smaller homes use less energy. Average household energy use is highest in houses (103.6 million BTU), followed by apartments with 2-4 units (76.1 million BTU), mobile homes (67.9 million BTU), and apartments with 5+ units in the building (46.3 million BTU). ⁹ 4.Replacing 80% of conditioned roof area on commercial buildings in the U.S. with solar reflective material would offset 125 mmt CO2 over the structures’ lifetime, equivalent to turning off 33 coal power plants for one year. ⁹

14 CARBON FOOTPRINT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS SAMUEL A SUMADU -S ARKODIE |11 14/10 Spring 2015 SEES 510 Renewable Energy & Climate Change METU NCC I NTRODUCTION | SOURCES OF EMISSION | SOLUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE ACTIONS | C ONCLUSIONS Ways to Reduce Carbon Footprint ¹⁰ Texas A&M University, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (2008) 10 Simple Ways to Reduce your Carbon Footprint.; U.S. EPA (2009) “Climate Change – What You Can Do.; Patagonia (2009) The Footprint Chronicles. 5.Using a low flow shower head can save 350 pounds of CO2e per year. Setting the temperature to 120°F can help improve a hot water heater’s efficiency. ¹⁰ 6.Turn off your TV, computer, and other electronics when not in use to reduce your carbon footprint by thousands of pounds of CO2e each year. Unplug unused electronics to further reduce your footprint. ¹⁰ 7.Choose energy-efficient lighting. If every home in the U.S. replaced their 5 most used light bulbs with Energy Star bulbs, the reduction in carbon emissions would be equivalent to removing 10 million cars from the road. ¹⁰ 8.Recycling half a household’s waste can save 2,400 pounds of CO2 per year. Buying products with minimal packaging also helps reduce waste. 9.For every 10% of waste reduction, 1,200 pounds of CO2e are avoided. ¹⁰

15 CARBON FOOTPRINT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS SAMUEL A SUMADU -S ARKODIE |11 15/10 Spring 2015 SEES 510 Renewable Energy & Climate Change METU NCC I NTRODUCTION | SOURCES OF EMISSION | SOLUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE ACTIONS | C ONCLUSIONS Summary (Carbon Footprint Ranking) 1)Forest fire – 100 million tons CO ₂ e 2)Having a child – 700 tons CO ₂ e 3)2.5 Acres deforestation – 500 tons CO ₂ e 4)A new car – 17 tons CO ₂ e 5)Flight (LA to Spain) – 4.6 tons CO ₂ e 6)A new computer – 720 kg CO ₂ e 7)Road trip: SF to LA – 500 Kg CO ₂ e 8)Light on for a year – 400 kg CO ₂ e 9)$100 on groceries – 62 kg CO ₂ e 12)Beef cheeseburger – 2.5 kg CO ₂ e 13)A pint of beer – 500g CO ₂ e 14)Bottle of water – 200g CO ₂ e 15)Cycling a mile – 100g CO ₂ e 16)Banana – 80g CO ₂ e 17)Walking through a door – 10g CO ₂ e 18)A web search – 2g CO ₂ e 19)Moderate cell phone use (year) – 47 kg CO ₂ e 20)10 lbs of trash – 3.1 kg CO ₂ e ¹¹ Berners-Lee, M. (2011). How bad are bananas?: the carbon footprint of everything. Greystone Books Ltd. ¹¹

16 CARBON FOOTPRINT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS SAMUEL A SUMADU -S ARKODIE |11 16/10 Spring 2015 SEES 510 Renewable Energy & Climate Change METU NCC I NTRODUCTION | SOURCES OF EMISSION | SOLUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE ACTIONS | C ONCLUSIONS Conclusions We still haven't solved the climate problems but we are getting closer. We all have a role to play in the abatement of green house emissions by our sustainable actions or inactions as a result of reducing our Carbon Footprints. Taking this step can make the world a better place to live in and serve as a bequest for future generations. Thank You for Your Attention


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