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Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources

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Presentation on theme: "Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources"— Presentation transcript:

1 Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources
Unit III Part-II

2 Important Topics Renewable & Nonrenewable Resources: Renewable Resources, Nonrenewable Resources, Destruction versus Conservation Energy Resources : Energy Resources - Indian Scenario , Conventional Energy Sources & its problems, non-conventional energy sources Advantages & its limitations Problems due to Overexploitation of Energy Resources

3 Important Questions Comment on the urban problems related to energy and discuss the effect of overpopulation over energy Problems in Indian. What are various sources of energy? Explain in details any one non-conventional source of energy. Describe the merits and demerits of nuclear power energy and discuss the major concerns regarding its use for electricity generation in India. Differentiate and enlist renewable and nonrenewable natural resources. What are uses and misuses of water? Describe in detail all energy resources being used presently. What are advantages and limitations of non-renewable and renewable and conventional and Non-conventional energy resources ? Comment on the urban energy problems and discuss the effect of overpopulation over energy problems in India. Give the classification of natural resources. Explain the conventional and non conventional energy resources. Distinguish between renewable and Non-renewable resources.

4 Important Questions Write the Advantages and Disadvantages of Conventional and Non- conventional energy sources. Give in detail different types of renewable resource available and used in India and problems because of overexploitation of them. Describe Conventional and Non-Conventional energy resources with Environmental Problems created by use of each of them. Write a short note on Environmental Problems associated with coal based thermal power plants. What is Energy Conservation? Why do we need to Conserve Energy? Prepare a list of fossil fuels and explain the environmental impacts of any one. Write a note on applications of Solar Energy explaining its limitations. Narrate in detail major sources and pollution produced by uses of nonrenewable energy sources? What are renewable resources which can replace them so that Environmental pollution is reduced

5 Renewable Resources “Renewable resource are those resources which can be regenerated and replenished through rapid natural cycles” Common examples are Water, air, wood , all biological products Energies from sun, water, wind etc

6 Non-Renewable Resources
“Resources that exists in a fixed quantity in Earth’s crust and thus theoretically can be used up are called non renewable resources”. eg:-Minerals like deposits of ores of copper, Aluminium, Mercury and other metals Fossil fuels like ,Coal, Oil, Natural gas.

7 Destruction vs. Conservation
Resources are required to meet our needs and desires. They are needed in our day to day life It is very difficult to Imagine life without resources Increase in population has resulted in heavy toll on the resources. It is predicted that most of the resources will be depleted in next 50 to 80 yrs

8 Destruction vs. Conservation

9 Destruction In many countries , diversified growth of forest is replaced by single species of plantation Thousands of life species become extinct each year because of human activity of development. Forests have been destroyed, ecosystems have been disturbed, Species getting extinct, increase in pollution, increase in waste generation all can be considered as aftermath of destruction.

10 Conservation Conservation means sustainable use of natural resources.
‘Con ’ means together and ‘servare’ means to keep guard thus means to keep together The true aim of conservation is to preserve the quality of environment To ensure continuous and balanced growth of resources.

11 Different Measures for Resource Conservation
Stopping Deforestation and increasing afforestation Vertical development of cities Rain water harvesting, construction of check dams Recycling and reuse of resources Using alternate source of energies Development of new technologies to reduce pollution.

12 Energy Resources Energy can be classified as follows Energy
According to sources According to mode of Regeneration


14 According to Sources Conventional energy sources fossil fuels Coal Oil
Natural Gas Timber Non Conventional energy sources Solar energy Wind energy Ocean energy Atomic energy Geothermal energy Hydrogen energy

15 According To Regeneration Capacity
Non Renewable Sources Coal Oil Gas Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Renewable Sources Solar Energy Wind Energy Ocean Energy Tidal Energy Geothermal Energy Biomass Energy Hydrogen Energy

16 Solar Energy Solar energy is the energy obtained from sun in the form of radiations. Sun is an inexhaustible source of energy and pollution free source of energy. It results as a result of Nuclear Fusion reactions Solar Energy has the maximum potential of all the sources of renewable energy Sun gives 1000 times more energy than we need and if only a small amount of this form can be used it will be one of the most important supplies of energies

17 Direct Solar Energy The solar energy is the radiation energy. It can be used for direct heating or conversion into electricity. Direct heating e.g. Solar cooker Solar heaters Solar power generators


19 Photovoltaic cells Photo voltaic cells are made of semi conductor materials like silicon, gallium. When solar radiations fall on them, a potential difference is created which causes flow of electron and electricity A group of solar cells joined to gather forms a solar panel which can harvest large amount of energy.

20 Photovoltaic Cells

21 Indirect Solar Energy It is the energy obtained from material that have previously incorporated sun’s radiant energy. Among the indirect solar energy biomass is the term used for all material originated from photosynthesis, It includes plants, agricultural and forest residues, biodegradable organic wastes

22 Advantages of Solar Energy
Easy Installation & maintenance. Absence of noise and other form of pollution. Solar photovoltaic cell system are favorable for fulfilling the requirement of electricity for decentralized application. Longer life , makes it favorable for remote, isolated, forest, hilly areas.

23 Dis-Advantages of Solar Energy
Uncertainty of availability of solar energy due to cloud, wind rainfall etc. Large spaces are required for collection of solar energy at a useful rate. Amount of sunlight that arrives at the earth’s surface is not constant. It depends on location, time of day, time of year, & weather condition. Currently the initial cost is high but is reducing at a faster rate.

24 Biomass Energy Biomass is the organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy Biomass include, wood, bio-fuel, and biogas Bio-energy is generated when biomass is burned.

25 Energy Plantation By photo synthesis plant convert radiant energy into chemical energy which in turn can be store and used as a fuel in various forms

26 Bio Fuel Certain latex containing plants are rich in hydrocarbon and can yield an oil like substance under high temperature and pressure. This oily material may be burnt and can be used as a fuel.

27 Biogas In biogas plants animal wastes and sewage sludge etc in the form of slurry is fermented aerobically to form biogas. Biogas has high calorific value and can be used for operating small engines for pumping water


29 Advantages of Biomass Energy
Plants ensures a continuous supply of energy due to their continuous growth. Potential for rural areas. Biogas can be used for cooking purpose. Can be used for operating small engines for pumping water, for lighting. Waste can be used as an excellent fertilizers.

30 Dis-advantages of Biomass Energy
Except biogas production, the other biomass energy sources have to be established a significant role. Availability is limited.

31 Wind Energy Wind energy is the kinetic energy associated with the movement of air It has been used hundreds of years for sailing, grinding. Wind turbine transforms the energy in the wind into mechanical energy which is in turn converted into electrical energy through generators. The minimum wind speed which is required for the satisfactory performance of wind generator is 15 km/hr . The wind power potential of India is estimated to be about 20,000 MW, while at present we are generating about 1020 MW.

32 Wind Energy

33 Advantages of Wind Energy
Non polluting and environment friendly source of energy. Important renewable and sustainable source of energy, available free of cost. Generation of electricity is fast. Cheaper as compared to other sources Easily available in many off-shores, on-shores and remote areas.

34 Dis-advantages of Wind Energy
Favorable in geographic locations which are always away from cities. Variable, unsteady, irregular, intermittent, erratic, and dangerous Wind turbine design, manufacture and installation have proved to be complex due to widely varying atmospheric conditions Can be located only in vast open areas. Economical only on a small scale

35 Hydropower Energy The energy in the form of flowing water can be used to produce electricity. Hydropower can be generated using water collected and stored at high elevation and led through a tunnel or pipe line to a turbine located at low level. The minimum height of water fall must be 10 m Hydroelectric power generation capacity of India is MW.

36 Hydropower Energy

37 Advantages of Hydro Power Energy
Longer life Minimum operating staff. Non Polluting and hence environmental friendly. Low cost of generation & maintenance.

38 Dis-advantages of Hydro Power Energy
Land acquisition is the major problem as construction of dam causes large submergence of land. Many political, regional, and social hurdles comes in the process of land acquisition Hydro- Power project takes long time for clearance. Rehabilitation and resettlement of displaced people is a major problem associated to any hydropower project. Large scale initial investment is required. .

39 Tidal Energy Another form of energy related to local geological conditions is tidal flow. As water flow In the form of tides from higher level to lower level it can be used to generate electricity. The tidal energy can be harnessed by constructing a tidal barrage. During high tides the sea water flows into the reservoir of the barrage and turns the turbine, which in turn produces electricity. During low tides when the sea level is low, the sea water stored in the barrage flow out into the sea and turns the turbine.


41 Advantages of Tidal Power Energy
Can be a Source of Energy for Coastal Cities. No raw material is required. Generation is cheaper.

42 Dis-advantages of Tidal Power Energy
Availability is for limited duration and varies with time and location Generation capacity is less. Operational difficulties during bad weather.

43 Geothermal Energy Geothermal Energy means heat from the earth. The Earth’s Core with temperature as high as 60,000 0C is a molten mass possessing vast amount of energy. This energy sometimes breaks through the earth and produce Volcanoes. Geysers and Hot springs are natural areas where the hot magma is close enough to the surface to heat the underground water. In areas where the stream is trapped underground. Geothermal energy is tapped by drilling well to obtain steam The steam is then used to power electric generators

44 Advantages of Geothermal Energy
It is an inexhaustible energy resource. It is very cheap. It is more regular energy production source than other non-conventional resources like wind and solar energy. It is good for the hilly, remote area, where no other source of energy is available.

45 Dis-advantages of Geothermal Energy
These hot springs are generally away from the areas having potentials of industrial development. The stream energy is to be used as it cannot be carried out for a longer distance due to loss of energy and due to the cost factor also.

46 Geothermal Energy

47 Hydrogen Energy Hydrogen is a combustible gas. In combustion Process it combines with the oxygen to form water and release large amount of energy. The amount of energy released / gm is calories as compared to calories. Hydrogen is a clean fuel. A major problem is of fire and explosion hazard. Also it is difficult to store and transport. Hydrogen can be stored in the form of fuel cells. The raw material for fuel cell is water, which is available in abundance. Thus hydrogen as a energy source is a environmentally compatible fuel. 0.

48 Hydrogen Energy

49 Advantages of Hydrogen Energy
When it is burnt it produces only water Vapor, and it is pollution free. There are no green-house gases, there is no fear of global warming It has lots of applications like home appliances, transport vehicles and industrial units.

50 Dis-Advantages of Hydrogen Energy
Still the large scale production for the commercial use has not been introduced. Its production cost is high It needs huge external energy to release hydrogen from water or coal. i.e. from hydrocarbon.

51 Non Renewable Energy Sources
Fossil Fuels: Fossil fuels such as coal , oil and natural gas all of which are mixture of compounds containing carbon and hydrogen. These are formed by the decomposition of the remains of plants and animals buried under the earth. Millions of years ago.

52 Coal

53 Coal The ancient plants along the bank of river and swamps were buried after the death under the soil and due to heat and pressure gradually got converted into peat and coal. Coal is primary fuel for energy in India, India is the 3rd largest producer of coal. According to geological survey. The coal reserve of India is 212 billion ton. At present usage rate the coal reserve is likely to last for about 200 yrs and if the use is increased by 2 % , then it will last for another 65 years.

54 Coal Reserves of India

55 Coal Energy Advantages The coal reserves are huge.
The cost of production and transport is less. The low quality coal can be used for production of tar. Dis-Advantages It creates air and water pollution. It is heavy and bulky, so storing needs large areas. The ash produced on burning of coal creates health problems.

56 Oil: India is not endowed with large reserve of oil and total reserve of oil in India is 0.3 billion ton. The oil can be considered as Care resource in India. Gas: Natural Gas is a cleanest fossil fuel it can be easily transported through pipelines it has high calorific value. It mainly composed of methane. A total reserve of 73.4 billion cubic m can be considered as probable resource.

57 Oil Reserves of India

58 Oil Energy Advantages The transport of liquid fuel is easy.
The liquid fuel is lighter than coal so it can be used in air transport. The liquid fuel has lots of bi-products. The liquid fuel does not require very huge area of storing.

59 Oil Energy Advantages The fuel is evaporable and so it is to be stored in closed tankers The production cost is higher than that of coal. It creates air pollution through the pollutants like NO, SO2, CO, CO2. The reserves of fuel oil are lesser than that of coal

60 Natural Gas Advantages
It is a clean fuel and does not require a long reprocessing. It can be transported through tankers or through pipe lines. It does not create huge smog. It does have high pollutants so can be considered as eco-friendly.

61 Natural Gas Dis-Advantages
For C.N.G or L.P.G it needs very high pressure or very low temperature for packing it into smaller space. The container should be very thick to stand such a high pressure. The leakage of these gases, creates environmental problem. Methane gas like CO2 is known to be green house gas i.e. It holds the outgoing heat to create global warming.

62 Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy is the energy trapped inside the atom. Nuclear energy can be generated by two types of reactions Nuclear Fission: An Atom nucleus can be split apart this is known as fission when this is done a tremendous amount of energy in the form of both heat and light is released this energy can be harnessed to generate electricity.

63 Nuclear Fission

64 Nuclear Fusion: Nuclear fusion can also be harnessed by fusion
Nuclear Fusion: Nuclear fusion can also be harnessed by fusion. A fusion reaction occurs when 2 atom combine to form larger atom. This reaction takes place all the time in the sun, which provides us with solar energy. Nuclear energy has tremendous potential but any leakage from the reaction may cause devastating nuclear pollution. nuclear power plants in operation generating 4,120 MW

65 Nuclear Fusion

66 Nuclear Power Plants in India

67 Nuclear Energy Advantages
It’s production cost per unit of power is much lesser than the thermal power production. The area required for the radioactive fuel like uranium or is smaller than the coal mines or the huge reservoirs to generate energy. Heat generation in the nuclear power plant is much higher than the heat generation in any thermal power plant of same size.

68 Nuclear Energy Dis-advantages
The high technology required to generate nuclear power is not available in all the countries The nuclear waste are radioactive in nature and so are harmful to the living beings. There is a danger of misuse of the civilian nuclear power plant. i.e. It can be used to produce the nuclear weapons for the mass destruction.

69 Conservation of Energy Resources
Causes of shortage of energy in India Unplanned use of existing energy resources. There is high loss of electricity at the production point and also at the distribution point. Use of obsolete technologies also have reduced the production and increased the losses. The theft of power i.e. illegal use of the electricity also have increased the cost of production. Over Irrigation, over use of the underground water are the basic causes of over use of electricity.

70 Conservation of Energy Resources
Effect of shortage of energy in India Due to short supply of electricity for the last few years, the industrial as well as agricultural production has been reduced. Lesser industrial production has created the problem of industrial unemployment. The urban life totally is dependable on supply of electricity the shortage of electricity has caused a total social unrest.

71 The Method of Conservation of Energy
Some of the measures at a domestic level can help the nation to save the energy at a larger level. The conventional electronic tubes or bulbs should be replaced by the fluorescent lamps (CFL) which need less power and can produce more light. While going out of the house for few hours, we must switch off all the lights and fans. Use of air conditioners also should be made, if required. Power factor improving devices should be used for the commercial as well as for the domestic purpose also.

72 Case Study: Success: The Magic Lantern
It is evening at the Elliots Beach in Chennai. There are hundreds of people on the beach taking the fresh air, an escape from humid and polluted air of the city, inevitably there are hordes of hawkers selling groundnuts, snakes. The hawkers always carried petromax lamps that run on kerosene. It was quite a job pumping it up initially. Once lit, however, it gives bright light. Since 2001, however they have had an option; a solar lantern that they can rent for the evening. The hawkers, who have each paid a refundable deposit of Rs. 100, collect a lantern in the evening and return it after use. They pay Rs. 15 for a 4- hour rent and Rs. 5 for each extra Hour. During the weekends, when demand is high, the rent increases to Rs. 20. The Young Man who run the enterprise have a small office near the beach, where they charge the lanterns during the day using solar panels. The hawkers prefer the solar lantern as They spend the same amount as before, with some advantages. They can just switch on and use the lamps without worrying about its maintenance. With the petromax, the flame would break, or the glass would get heated. The pumping was also difficult. The Project is the Brain child of Hemant Lamba, of Auroville Renewable Energy (AuroRE) in the international community near Pondicherry. AuroRe has been promoting renewable energy and their project has included installing solar lamps in Ladakh & Punjab. Each Solar lantern costs about Rs and provides light for about 5 hours. The annual turn over is about Rs.10, This is a Unique project that promotes renewable energy, providing at the same time self-employment for the urban poor youth.

73 Activity Prepare a list of measure which can be taken to conserve electricity at your Home. Make a list of alternate source of energies which are available in your vicinity.

74 Assignment Compare the advantages and disadvantages of oil, coal, and natural gas as energy source. What are the special problems of nuclear power? How can we improve energy efficiency?

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