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Presentation on theme: "THE PROMISE OF RECONSTRUCTION AND THE NADIR, 1877-1923 United States History."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Civil War and Its Impact  The Civil War was largely fought over the issues of states’ rights, popular sovereignty, and spread of slavery in the U.S.  States’ Rights – the powers reserved for the states rather than the federal government  Popular sovereignty – political theory that government is created by and subject to the will of the people  Territories had to be admitted to the Union as either free (no slavery) or as slave states

3 The Civil War and Its Impact  The Civil War was from 1861 – 1865  The Northern States (Union) defeated the Southern States (Confederacy)  It was the deadliest war in American history, killing over 620,000  Victory for the North meant the end of the Confederacy and of slavery in the United States and strengthened the power of the federal government  It ushered in the Reconstruction Era

4 Reconstruction  Reconstruction addressed how the 11 southern states that seceded (left) from the Union and formed the Confederacy would be re-admitted to the United States of America  This process included  Physically rebuilding the South  Restoring the South to the Union via loyalty oaths & suffrage  Determining rights and citizenship for African Americans

5 The Promise of Reconstruction  Radical Republicans helped to pass the 13 th, 14 th, & 15 th Amendments (the Reconstruction Amendments) which drastically improved the lives of African Americans  13 th Amendment – abolished slavery  14 th Amendment – made all African Americans (& Native Americans) citizens of the United States  15 th Amendment – granted voting rights regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”

6 The Promise of Reconstruction  In addition to the Reconstruction Amendments, the Radical Republicans also helped to create the  Freedman’s Bureau – aided freed slaves through legal food and housing, education, health care, and employment  Elected Office holders – over 630 African Americans were elected to the Senate and the House of Representatives

7 Redemption  Once they regained the ability to vote, many white southerners became redeemers fought against Reconstruction, using both political and violence means  These redeemers were instrumental in creating  Black Codes – state legislation which controlled the labor, migration, and activities of African Americans  Ku Klux Klan (KKK) – a white supremacist para-military organization known for their violent repression of African Americans

8 The Failure of Reconstruction  While the promises of Reconstruction for African Americans gave them equality briefly, overall the programs of Reconstruction was a utter failure. This ushered in the Nadir (lowest point) for American race relations  As a result of this failure of Reconstruction, a new era of race relations was ushered in – Jim Crow – which created a system of legal racial segregation (separation by race) in public and private facilities  de jure segregation – by law, usually in the South  de facto segregation – by fact, usually in the North

9 Jim Crow America  Jim Crow existed from 1876-1965 in both the North and the South  Named after caricature of blacks performed by whites in blackface  The term Jim Crow became synonymous with Negro and racial segregation

10 Jim Crow America – Disfranchisement  From 1890 to 1908, white conservative Democrats passed legislation and constitutional amendments across the South to disfranchise (deny the right to vote) most African Americans  They used a combination of restrictions on voter & voting methods like  poll taxes  literacy tests  residency requirements

11 Jim Crow America - Violence  Violence, and the threat of violence, was a significant part of enforcing Jim Crow laws  Besides the work of the KKK, mobs of white men often lynched African Americans illegally  Lynching involved hanging, disfiguring and, usually, burning the victim to death

12 Jim Crow America - Accommodations  The case, Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), established the basic principle of Jim Crow America, “separate but equal”  The “separate but equal” clause was the rule of law in America until the Brown v. Board of Education decision in 1954

13 The Fight Against Jim Crow  Though this period is considered the Nadir for African Americans, many organized against Jim Crow and fought for their rights, eventually culminating in the modern Civil Rights Movement (1954 - 1970)  Ida B. Wells – Barnett  W.E.B. Du Bois  Booker T. Washington

14 Ida B. Wells - Barnett  Educated at Fisk University, Ida B. Wells was a journalist and newspaper editor who tirelessly exposed lynchings in the South  She was also active in the women’s rights movement

15 William Edward Burghardt Du Bois  As the 1 st African American to receive a PhD from Harvard, Du Bois later founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)  A sociologist and author, he became a dominate figure in the African American community

16 Booker T. Washington  A former slave and self made man, Washington founded the Tuskegee Institute to train African Americans in the trades and agriculture  An author and politician, he became a dominate figure in the African American community

17 Philosophical Differences between Du Bois and Washington  W.E.B. Du Bois  Believed in demanding rights for African Americans  The Talented Tenth, an educated elite, would lead Black America  Coined the idea of double consciousness – all Blacks live in 2 worlds (one black, one white)  Outlined his philosophy in The Souls of Black Folk  Booker T. Washington  Believed in accommodation – blacks would not ask for the vote or equal rights & would tolerate segregation and discrimination until whites were ready to give African Americans their rights  Outlined his philosophy in Up From Slavery

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