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Fighting Jim Crow African Americans and the Struggle for Civil Rights 1870-1930.

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Presentation on theme: "Fighting Jim Crow African Americans and the Struggle for Civil Rights 1870-1930."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fighting Jim Crow African Americans and the Struggle for Civil Rights 1870-1930

2 Reconstruction  14th and 15th Amendments guarantee equality for freed slaves  Northern occupation of South helps enforce new laws Many black men begin to vote and hold office  Compromise of 1877 End of Reconstruction, Northern troops leave

3 Origin of Jim Crow  Character created by whites Minstrel, buffoon  Symbolizes keeping blacks “in their place”  South begins to create new laws to enforce Jim Crow ideas

4 Jim Crow in Practice  Segregation Public accommodations Schools  Miscegenation No marriage between blacks and whites

5 Jim Crow in Practice  Disenfranchisement (withholding the vote) Limits on registration Poll taxes Literacy tests Grandfather clause  Terror

6 Strange Fruit Southern trees bear strange fruit Blood on the leaves and blood at the root Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees Pastoral scene of the gallant south The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh Then the sudden smell of burning flesh Here is fruit for the crows to pluck For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck For the sun to rot, for the trees to drop Here is a strange and bitter cry

7 Jim Crow in Practice  Ku Klux Klan (KKK) “Secret” organization formed to kill and terrorize blacks  Lynching Mob rule Over 3,700 killed, 1889-1930 Lynching of Lige Daniels, Texas 1920

8 Jim Crow Upheld  Supreme Court upholds “separate, but equal” Plessy v. Ferguson  In reality, separate far from equal No black public high schools in many Southern states  Federal government fails to pass anti- lynching law

9 Black Methods of Survival  Masking Play the part in public Don’t challenge white superiority openly  Accommodationism Accept segregation, pursue separate goals

10 Black Methods of Survival  Escape “Great Migration” of blacks to Northern cities 1.6 million between 1910 and 1930

11 Booker T. Washington  Believed in gradualism  Stressed education Vocational  Tuskegee Institute  “I will permit no man to narrow and degrade my soul by making me hate him.” - 1901

12 Mary Church Terrell  Founder and first President of National Association of Colored Women (NACW)  Opposed segregation in education and lynching  “Lifting as we Climb”

13 W.E.B. DuBois  Rejected gradualism Blacks must demand equality  Founder Niagara Movement, NAACP  “To be a poor man is hard, but to be a poor race in a land of dollars is the very bottom of hardships.” - 1903

14 Ida Wells-Barnett  Friend a victim of lynching  Co-founder NAACP  Tried to get anti-lynching law passed  “One had better die fighting against injustice than die like a dog or a rat in a trap.”

15 Marcus Garvey  Jamaican immigrant  Black pride and self-help  Founded Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)  "Up, you mighty race, accomplish what you will."

16 Other Forms of Resistance  Religion Black churches as supportive communities Nation of Islam Black nationalism  Culture Ragtime, Jazz, Blues, Literature, Sports Harlem Renaissance

17 Justice Delayed is Justice Denied  For all the efforts of black leaders, very little progress made in laws Segregation further entrenched Voting rights denied No lynching law passed  But, social and economic gains of African Americans promises better future

18 Martin Luther King, Jr.  Born January 15, 1929  “Men often hate each other because they fear each other; they fear each other because they don't know each other; they don't know each other because they can not communicate; they can not communicate because they are separated.” - 1958

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