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Development of South and Central America Societies

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1 Development of South and Central America Societies
Engineering an Empire: Aztec 1 SSWH8

2 Standard SSWH8 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the development of societies in Central and South America. a. Explain the rise and fall of the Olmec, Mayan, Aztec, and Inca empires. b. Compare the culture of the Americas; include government, economy, religion, and the arts of the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas.

3 Intro Early Inhabitants
Migrated from Asia during the last Ice Age, crossing the Bering Strait by foot

4 Intro Hunter-gatherers:
During global warming, they migrated east and south to follow the herds. Different cultures formed as they spread out. Cut off from Asia as Ice Age ended, they developed independently from cultures in the Eastern Hemisphere. Intro

5 Intro Technology: Watch Me!! Metal was rarely used
many cultures were still in the Stone Age. Wheel was used, but not for transportation. Watch Me!!

6 Pyramids Despite the towering reputation of Egypt's Great Pyramids at Giza, the Americas actually contain more pyramid structures than the rest of the planet combined. Civilizations like the Olmec, Maya, Aztec and Inca all built pyramids to house their deities, as well as to bury their kings.

7 In many of their great city-states, temple-pyramids formed the center of public life and were the site of much holy ritual, including human sacrifice.

8 Ancient City of Teotihuacan

9 Engineering an Empire: Aztec 2
OLMEC Engineering an Empire: Aztec 2 BC Called “Rubber People” Carved enormous stone heads of volcanic rock Division of labor Hieroglyphics farm techniques - slash and burn The Olmecs

10 The Olmec Meso-America 1st civilization 1200-400 BC
They made Pyramids, mounds, monuments Sculptured heads - 44 tons Religion: polytheistic many nature gods: Chief god was the jaguar god Influenced - design, ceremonial centers, ball games, elite ruling class Performed ritual sacrifices Played pok-a-tok game Went on pilgrimages Government - ruler - god like

11 Olmec Influenced area through trade; evidence of trade confirmed by Olmec jade carvings found throughout Central America Achievements: Long Count Calendar No idea what caused their decline

12 Engineering an Empire: Aztec 3
Maya Engineering an Empire: Aztec 3

13 El Castillo, Chichen Itza: El Castillo "The Castle"
It rises 79 feet above the Main Plaza of the ancient Maya city of Chichen Itza in Mexico (founded c. AD 600 ). Chichén Itzá

14 MAYANS Yucatan Peninsula Government: Religion: Economy: City States
Complex two layers (now and otherworld) polytheistic Major role in society and rule Human sacrifice Economy: Trade with other city-states MAYANS

15 Mayan Culture: 2000 BC -900 Ad 250- 900 million population
Cities - Tikal, Copan: Palaces, temples, pyramids Social classes - warriors, priests, merchants, craft workers, peasants Astronomy, math, 2 calendars - 1 for sun, 1 for religion Math and astronomy to support religious beliefs Pyramids Glyphic writing system No explanation for their decline Possibly: war, drought, infighting The Mayans


17 Palenque

18 Engineering an Empire: Aztec 4

19 Aztec Most powerful civilization in central and southern Mexico.
The capital city was Tenochtitlan. Located on islands in Lake Texcoco – 1200.

20 Tenochtitlan

21 The Aztecs

22 Aztec 1100-1522 AD Government Religion Warriors Social structure
Military strength Social structure Emperor Nobles Commoners Enslaved persons Religion Polytheistic Their main god was the “sun god” “fed” the god with human sacrifice

23 Quetzacoatl - feathered serpent god
Legend -- left city and will return one day

24 Aztec Economy Trade – obsidian Tribute states Pyramids, temples

25 Aztec Civilization Culture A complex and rich society A trade network
A mathematical system to keep up with the empire Two different calendar systems A Farming system Used irrigation to keep their crops growing even during dry periods

26 Chinampas floating gardens

27 Aztec Civilization They were known for their artwork …

28 Aztec Civilization and their architecture.
The pyramid temple was the center of this great city

29 Aztec Civilization Today, some of the art and buildings have been re-discovered. A modern version of the Aztec language, Nahuatl, is still spoken by thousands of people in Mexico.

30 Aztec Civilization An important part of their culture was the sacrifice of animals and humans. People who were conquered were required to pay large taxes. They also had to provide people to offer as sacrifices to the Aztec gods.

31 Aztec Sacrifice

32 Montezuma Cortes

33 Aztec Civilization Arrival of Spanish led to the fall of the Aztec.
It ended in 1541 when conquered by the Spanish. The Spanish destroyed much of the Aztec building and artwork. They destroyed the city of Tenochtitlan and built Mexico City in its place. Aztecs

34 Engineering an Empire: Aztec 5
The Inca

35 Inca Located in South America 1400-1534 Cuzco - capital – Peru
Andes Mountains Cuzco - capital – Peru Lost Cities of the Inca

36 Inca Government: Theocracy Strong central government
huge empire extending length of South America Leader - descendent of sun god Expanded empire Powerful military Bureaucracy

37 Inca Religion: Religion ruled state – theocracy Mummies
Animal sacrifice Economy: economic system roads, All roads lead to Cuzco

38 Inca Culture: Ayulla - extended family - to do large tasks
Mita - required service to state

39 Machu Picchu

40 INCAS Machu Picchu Built paved roads & suspension bridges - used running messengers Instead of writing system used knotted string to communicate messages & keep records - quipu

41 Inca terraces

42 Suspension bridge

43 Quipu

44 The Inca were conquered by the Spanish conquistador Pizarro.
Atahualpa Pizarro

45 Destruction of Culture
The Meso-American kingdoms were as advanced and sophisticated as the ancient Greeks and Romans The European conquerors tried to destroy the evidence of this sophisticated culture


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