Presentation on theme: "Development of South and Central America Societies"— Presentation transcript:
1 Development of South and Central America Societies Engineering an Empire: Aztec 1SSWH8
2 StandardSSWH8 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the development of societies in Central and South America.a. Explain the rise and fall of the Olmec, Mayan, Aztec, and Inca empires.b. Compare the culture of the Americas; include government, economy, religion, and the arts of the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas.
3 Intro Early Inhabitants Migrated from Asia during the last Ice Age, crossing the Bering Strait by foot
4 Intro Hunter-gatherers: During global warming, they migrated east and south to follow the herds.Different cultures formed as they spread out.Cut off from Asia as Ice Age ended, they developed independently from cultures in the Eastern Hemisphere.Intro
5 Intro Technology: Watch Me!! Metal was rarely used many cultures were still in the Stone Age.Wheel was used, but not for transportation.Watch Me!!
6 PyramidsDespite the towering reputation of Egypt's Great Pyramids at Giza, the Americas actually contain more pyramid structures than the rest of the planet combined. Civilizations like the Olmec, Maya, Aztec and Inca all built pyramids to house their deities, as well as to bury their kings.
7 In many of their great city-states, temple-pyramids formed the center of public life and were the site of much holy ritual, including human sacrifice.
9 Engineering an Empire: Aztec 2 OLMECEngineering an Empire: Aztec 2BCCalled “Rubber People”Carved enormous stone heads of volcanic rockDivision of laborHieroglyphicsfarm techniques - slash and burnThe Olmecs
10 The Olmec Meso-America 1st civilization 1200-400 BC They made Pyramids, mounds, monumentsSculptured heads - 44 tonsReligion: polytheisticmany nature gods: Chief god was the jaguar godInfluenced - design, ceremonial centers, ball games, elite ruling classPerformed ritual sacrificesPlayed pok-a-tok gameWent on pilgrimagesGovernment - ruler - god like
11 OlmecInfluenced area through trade; evidence of trade confirmed by Olmec jade carvings found throughout Central AmericaAchievements:Long Count CalendarNo idea what causedtheir decline
12 Engineering an Empire: Aztec 3 MayaEngineering an Empire: Aztec 3
13 El Castillo, Chichen Itza: El Castillo "The Castle" It rises 79 feet above the Main Plaza of the ancient Maya city of Chichen Itza in Mexico (founded c. AD 600 ).Chichén Itzá
14 MAYANS Yucatan Peninsula Government: Religion: Economy: City States Complextwo layers (now and otherworld)polytheisticMajor role in society and ruleHuman sacrificeEconomy:Trade with other city-statesMAYANS
15 Mayan Culture: 2000 BC -900 Ad 250- 900 million population Cities - Tikal, Copan: Palaces, temples, pyramidsSocial classes - warriors, priests, merchants, craft workers, peasantsAstronomy, math, 2 calendars - 1 for sun, 1 for religionMath and astronomy to support religious beliefsPyramidsGlyphic writing systemNo explanation for their declinePossibly: war, drought, infightingThe Mayans
22 Aztec 1100-1522 AD Government Religion Warriors Social structure Military strengthSocial structureEmperorNoblesCommonersEnslaved personsReligionPolytheisticTheir main god was the “sun god”“fed” the god with human sacrifice
23 Quetzacoatl - feathered serpent god Legend -- left city and will return one day
25 Aztec Civilization Culture A complex and rich society A trade network A mathematical system to keep up with the empireTwo different calendar systemsA Farming systemUsed irrigation to keep their crops growing even during dry periods
27 Aztec CivilizationThey were known for their artwork …
28 Aztec Civilization and their architecture. The pyramid temple was the center of this great city
29 Aztec CivilizationToday, some of the art and buildings have been re-discovered.A modern version of the Aztec language, Nahuatl, is still spoken by thousands of people in Mexico.
30 Aztec CivilizationAn important part of their culture was the sacrifice of animals and humans.People who were conquered were required to pay large taxes.They also had to provide people to offer as sacrifices to the Aztec gods.
33 Aztec Civilization Arrival of Spanish led to the fall of the Aztec. It ended in 1541 when conquered by the Spanish.The Spanish destroyed much of the Aztec building and artwork.They destroyed the city of Tenochtitlan and built Mexico City in its place.Aztecs
44 The Inca were conquered by the Spanish conquistador Pizarro. Atahualpa Pizarro
45 Destruction of Culture The Meso-American kingdoms were as advanced and sophisticated as the ancient Greeks and RomansThe European conquerors tried to destroy the evidence of this sophisticated culture