3 Bringing frontline interactive astronomy to the classroom Hands-On Universe, EuropeBringing frontline interactive astronomy to the classroom8 European partnersUniversité Pierre et Marie Curie (France) - F-HOU CoordinatorPhilekpaideftiki Etaireia (Greece)Fondazione IDIS – Citta Della Scienza (Italy)Centrum Fizyki Teoretycznej Polskiej Akademii Nauk (Poland)Nucleo Interactivo de Astronomia (Portugal)Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University (Sweden)Armagh Planetarium (United Kingdom)
4 Overall objectivesContinuous production of new innovative pedagogical resources: users-friendly software, astronomical data, exercises, multimedia supports; trans-disciplinary in essence (astronomy, physics, mathematics, history, language...); available in English and in different languages.Pedagogical use of worldwide telescope networks operated remotely via Internet.New innovative observing tools (webcam system, radio-antenna...) to be used directly by pupils (at no cost).Creation of a European network of researchers and middle/high school teachers for promotion of scientific and technological education; help to gear the education system to research and development.web site with a free access multilingual portal to all available resources.Dissemination through workshops and teacher training sessions.
5 Web site : http://www.euhou.net 1 European site and 8 national sites (http://www.fr.euhou.net/, etc.)with a Content Management System (CMS).Each site is composed of : + a public Web site+ an internal Web site/publication interface+ an administration interfaceHosted by the server of the project (located in the UPMC computing centre,daily back-up + baies RAID)Each partner is responsible of its national site.
8 We are ready to welcome new partners within the web site
9 Robotic Telescopes in Education Motivating to study science/maths/ICT/technologyCutting edge technologyCross-curricular, contribute to key skillsExciting and stimulating projectsStudent ownership of projectsThrill of real discoveryINOFaulkesLCOGTExcitingInspiringEducationalReal time, real science
10 Observing tools : Webcam system Skyview Observing tools :Webcam system SkyviewThe Polish partner has designed and produced a low cost Webcam system which allows classrooms to perform themselves night observations. A complete software manual is available, together with pedagogical tools for studying, for instance, the variability of the brightest stars.About 20 teachers have received one in each country.
11 Onsala radio telescope Observing tools :Onsala radio telescopeThe Swedish partner has developped in Onsala a 2.3 m prototype radio telescope, dedicated to real time observations via Internet from classrooms.A complete manual for observing the 21 cm hydrogen line in the Milky Way is available.This radio telescope can be duplicated for € (+1000€ for transportation)
12 Observing tools : Jodrell Bank radio telescope In the frame of RADIONET/FP6-7the 7 m radio telescope of Jodrell Bank is dedicated to real time observations via Internet from EU-HOU classrooms during 2 months.A complete set of educational material for observing the 21 cm hydrogen line in the Milky Way and local galaxies is available.
13 Didactical software for image and data handling Pedagogical resources :SalsaJ softwareDidactical software for image and data handlingSuch A Lovely Software for Astronomy, in JavaMulti-platform (Windows, Linux, Mac)Java, modularity; easily extensible to implement new fonctionnalitiesAdaptation in different languages; recently in arabic; chinese in progressFree of charge (download from the EU-HOU web site)Up to date sources (derived from the free medical research tool ImageJdeveloped at NIH); adapted to astronomy; friendly tool for classroomsDeveloped by F-HOU ; SalsaJ v2.0 to be released by the end of 2007
16 Pedagogical resources : exercises Learning science by doing science: to propose hands-on activities based on realastronomical data, inspired from research:F-HOU: From the Doppler effect to extrasolar planets; distances to CepheidsGr-HOU: The life of stars; stellar populationIt-HOU: How to weight a distant galaxy ?Pl-HOU: Webcam astronomy; variable stars; distances to Cepheids, etc.Pt-HOU: What is a star ?Se-HOU: Radio astronomy in the classroom; hydrogen in the Milky WaySp-HOU: The solar system as a math laboratoryUK-HOU: Voyage through space (EduSpace/ESA); Faulkes telescopes
17 Stefan-Boltzmann’s law GOALIntroduce high school students to theoretical models in physics and astronomyStellar modelStefan-Boltzmann’s lawPlanck’s lawWien’s lawHR Diagram
24 Mapping the Milky Way using atomic hydrogen The Swedish contribution to EU-HOU:A Hands-On Radio AstronomyexerciseMapping the Milky Way using atomic hydrogen
25 Hydrogen 21 cm lineHydrogen (H) – the most abundant element in the universeAbundant in our GalaxyAtomic hydrogen in the ground state – hyperfine transitionThe electron’s spin becomes anti-parallel to the proton’sRadiation at 1420 MHz – 21 cm is emittedRadio frequency – the atmospheric window is open
26 Radio spectrum Observations in the Galactic disc The purple line: line-of-sightRadio lines correspond to spiral arms
27 Rotation Curve Keplarian rotation (Solar system) V~1/RSolid body rotation (cdrom…)V~RDifferential rotation (The Milky Way)V=ConstantDark matter
32 11 spectraSpectreDate t (days).λ1 ( Ǻ)1 Ǻ = mDl =λ1 - λNa1( Ǻ)VE = c .(λ1 - λNa1)/ λNa1(km/s)15890,4110.46123.4825890,4960.54627.8135890,4910.54127.5645890,3050.35518.0855890,0140.0643.2665889,815-0.135-6.8874889,642-0.308-15.6985889,638-0.312-15.8995889,764-0.186-9.47105890,0560.1065.40115890,3180.36818.74
33 Radial velocity curve as a function of time Vrad = V0 + W ∙ cos ( 2pt/T + b)= 5,9 (km/s) + 23,2 (km/s) ∙ cos ( 2p tdays/(10,4days) + b)wV0wT/2 = 5,2 daysKepler law ; m<<M m sin i ≈ (P/2πG)1/3 (Vrad)M2/3 (1 – e²)1/2
34 • The black hole at the center of the Milky Way • Estimation of the Hubble constant
38 Vitesse de rotation des bras autour du noyau de la galaxie : Le décalage spectral augmente à partir du noyau pour atteindre une valeur quasi constante v7 de 7 pixels lorsque la distance au centre du noyau dépasse 10 pixels.V7 = (7/7231) / (2 sin(53°)) = 181 km/sDistribution de masse et rayon d’action :Nous supposons une distribution homogène à symétrie sphérique, nous prenons r = 10 pixels (c’est notamment ce point que l’on peut discuter et que la version approfondie de l’exercice permettra d’améliorer).D’autre part, la galaxie est à 39,7 Mpc de distance0,82 arcsecs39,7 Mpc1 pixel0,82 arcsecs/pixels ; 1 arcsec = p / ( ) = 4, rad ; 1pc = 3, m ,d’où pixel = angle en radian . distance en mètres1 pixel = 0,82. 4, , ,7.106 m = 4, mEstimation « mécanique » de la masse pour r ≈ 10 pixelsM = v² r / G = ( 1,81.105)² . 4, / 6,M = [1,81².4,88/6,67] kg ≈ 1040 kgM ≈ 1040 kgCeci est bien l’ordre de grandeur des masses des galaxies ; la masse effective de la galaxie sera d’autant plus grande qu’on étendra r ; pour des calculs plus fins, voir la version approfondie de cet exercice.
39 Dissemination : Leaflets Web site Stages for students TRA training sessionsEvents
40 « Human » solar system or Orrery Stages L3/UPMC at the Armagh Observatory (in English)Kepler lawsBethleem starThen, students can visit schools in France
41 more than 10 000 European pupils have used EU-HOU Dissemination :teacher trainingTraining Resource Agents (TRA)are teachers eager to :▪ learn about the various EU-HOU outputs▪ adapt European resources to national curricula▪ use them in their schools▪ train other teachers/educators about theresourcesBy the end of 2006, roughly 20 schools x 8 countries x 60 pupilsmore than European pupils have used EU-HOUTraining workshops in English were proposed to TRA (cost covered):almost 100 teachersTorun (Poland) October 2005;OHP 9-12 March 2006;Napoli September 2006.Plus national training.