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3 Bringing frontline interactive astronomy to the classroom
Hands-On Universe, Europe Bringing frontline interactive astronomy to the classroom 8 European partners Université Pierre et Marie Curie (France) - F-HOU Coordinator Philekpaideftiki Etaireia (Greece) Fondazione IDIS – Citta Della Scienza (Italy) Centrum Fizyki Teoretycznej Polskiej Akademii Nauk (Poland) Nucleo Interactivo de Astronomia (Portugal) Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University (Sweden) Armagh Planetarium (United Kingdom)

4 Overall objectives Continuous production of new innovative pedagogical resources: users-friendly software, astronomical data, exercises, multimedia supports; trans-disciplinary in essence (astronomy, physics, mathematics, history, language...); available in English and in different languages. Pedagogical use of worldwide telescope networks operated remotely via Internet. New innovative observing tools (webcam system, radio-antenna...) to be used directly by pupils (at no cost). Creation of a European network of researchers and middle/high school teachers for promotion of scientific and technological education; help to gear the education system to research and development. web site with a free access multilingual portal to all available resources. Dissemination through workshops and teacher training sessions.

5 Web site :
1 European site and 8 national sites ( etc.) with a Content Management System (CMS). Each site is composed of : + a public Web site + an internal Web site/publication interface + an administration interface Hosted by the server of the project (located in the UPMC computing centre, daily back-up + baies RAID) Each partner is responsible of its national site.

6 European interface

7 National interface

8 We are ready to welcome new partners within the web site

9 Robotic Telescopes in Education
Motivating to study science/maths/ICT/technology Cutting edge technology Cross-curricular, contribute to key skills Exciting and stimulating projects Student ownership of projects Thrill of real discovery INO Faulkes LCOGT Exciting Inspiring Educational Real time, real science

10 Observing tools : Webcam system Skyview
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Observing tools : Webcam system Skyview The Polish partner has designed and produced a low cost Webcam system which allows classrooms to perform themselves night observations. A complete software manual is available, together with pedagogical tools for studying, for instance, the variability of the brightest stars. About 20 teachers have received one in each country.

11 Onsala radio telescope
Observing tools : Onsala radio telescope The Swedish partner has developped in Onsala a 2.3 m prototype radio telescope, dedicated to real time observations via Internet from classrooms. A complete manual for observing the 21 cm hydrogen line in the Milky Way is available. This radio telescope can be duplicated for € (+1000€ for transportation)

12 Observing tools : Jodrell Bank radio telescope
In the frame of RADIONET/FP6-7 the 7 m radio telescope of Jodrell Bank is dedicated to real time observations via Internet from EU-HOU classrooms during 2 months. A complete set of educational material for observing the 21 cm hydrogen line in the Milky Way and local galaxies is available.

13 Didactical software for image and data handling
Pedagogical resources : SalsaJ software Didactical software for image and data handling Such A Lovely Software for Astronomy, in Java Multi-platform (Windows, Linux, Mac) Java, modularity; easily extensible to implement new fonctionnalities Adaptation in different languages; recently in arabic; chinese in progress Free of charge (download from the EU-HOU web site) Up to date sources (derived from the free medical research tool ImageJ developed at NIH); adapted to astronomy; friendly tool for classrooms Developed by F-HOU ; SalsaJ v2.0 to be released by the end of 2007

14 SalsaJ: a multilingual interface


16 Pedagogical resources : exercises
Learning science by doing science: to propose hands-on activities based on real astronomical data, inspired from research: F-HOU: From the Doppler effect to extrasolar planets; distances to Cepheids Gr-HOU: The life of stars; stellar population It-HOU: How to weight a distant galaxy ? Pl-HOU: Webcam astronomy; variable stars; distances to Cepheids, etc. Pt-HOU: What is a star ? Se-HOU: Radio astronomy in the classroom; hydrogen in the Milky Way Sp-HOU: The solar system as a math laboratory UK-HOU: Voyage through space (EduSpace/ESA); Faulkes telescopes

17 Stefan-Boltzmann’s law
GOAL Introduce high school students to theoretical models in physics and astronomy Stellar model Stefan-Boltzmann’s law Planck’s law Wien’s law HR Diagram


19 SpectrJ: "Η Ζωή των Άστρων και τα Φάσματα τους"





24 Mapping the Milky Way using atomic hydrogen
The Swedish contribution to EU-HOU: A Hands-On Radio Astronomy exercise Mapping the Milky Way using atomic hydrogen

25 Hydrogen 21 cm line Hydrogen (H) – the most abundant element in the universe Abundant in our Galaxy Atomic hydrogen in the ground state – hyperfine transition The electron’s spin becomes anti-parallel to the proton’s Radiation at 1420 MHz – 21 cm is emitted Radio frequency – the atmospheric window is open

26 Radio spectrum Observations in the Galactic disc
The purple line: line-of-sight Radio lines correspond to spiral arms

27 Rotation Curve Keplarian rotation (Solar system)
V~1/R Solid body rotation (cdrom…) V~R Differential rotation (The Milky Way) V=Constant Dark matter

28 Dynamical effects Astrometry Radial velocity Timing

29 MP sin i

30 Circular orbit Elliptical orbit Time Virginis

31 doublet du sodium

32 11 spectra Spectre Date t (days) .λ1 ( Ǻ) 1 Ǻ = m Dl =λ1 - λNa1 ( Ǻ) VE = c .(λ1 - λNa1)/ λNa1 (km/s) 1 5890,411 0.461 23.48 2 5890,496 0.546 27.81 3 5890,491 0.541 27.56 4 5890,305 0.355 18.08 5 5890,014 0.064 3.26 6 5889,815 -0.135 -6.88 7 4889,642 -0.308 -15.69 8 5889,638 -0.312 -15.89 9 5889,764 -0.186 -9.47 10 5890,056 0.106 5.40 11 5890,318 0.368 18.74

33 Radial velocity curve as a function of time
Vrad = V0 + W ∙ cos ( 2pt/T + b) = 5,9 (km/s) + 23,2 (km/s) ∙ cos ( 2p tdays/(10,4days) + b) w V0 w T/2 = 5,2 days Kepler law ; m<<M m sin i ≈ (P/2πG)1/3 (Vrad)M2/3 (1 – e²)1/2

34 • The black hole at the center of the Milky Way • Estimation of the Hubble constant

35 How to weight a galaxy ?

36 To weight a galaxy Dl / l = 2 vlongitudinal / c = 2 v sin(i) / c


38 Vitesse de rotation des bras autour du noyau de la galaxie :
Le décalage spectral augmente à partir du noyau pour atteindre une valeur quasi constante v7 de 7 pixels lorsque la distance au centre du noyau dépasse 10 pixels. V7 = (7/7231) / (2 sin(53°)) = 181 km/s Distribution de masse et rayon d’action : Nous supposons une distribution homogène à symétrie sphérique, nous prenons r = 10 pixels (c’est notamment ce point que l’on peut discuter et que la version approfondie de l’exercice permettra d’améliorer). D’autre part, la galaxie est à 39,7 Mpc de distance 0,82 arcsecs 39,7 Mpc 1 pixel 0,82 arcsecs/pixels ; 1 arcsec = p / ( ) = 4, rad ; 1pc = 3, m , d’où pixel = angle en radian . distance en mètres 1 pixel = 0,82. 4, , ,7.106 m = 4, m Estimation « mécanique » de la masse pour r ≈ 10 pixels M = v² r / G = ( 1,81.105)² . 4, / 6, M = [1,81².4,88/6,67] kg ≈ 1040 kg M ≈ 1040 kg Ceci est bien l’ordre de grandeur des masses des galaxies ; la masse effective de la galaxie sera d’autant plus grande qu’on étendra r ; pour des calculs plus fins, voir la version approfondie de cet exercice.

39 Dissemination : Leaflets Web site Stages for students
TRA training sessions Events

40 « Human » solar system or Orrery
Stages L3/UPMC at the Armagh Observatory (in English) Kepler laws Bethleem star Then, students can visit schools in France

41 more than 10 000 European pupils have used EU-HOU
Dissemination : teacher training Training Resource Agents (TRA) are teachers eager to : ▪ learn about the various EU-HOU outputs ▪ adapt European resources to national curricula ▪ use them in their schools ▪ train other teachers/educators about the resources By the end of 2006, roughly 20 schools x 8 countries x 60 pupils more than European pupils have used EU-HOU Training workshops in English were proposed to TRA (cost covered): almost 100 teachers Torun (Poland) October 2005; OHP 9-12 March 2006; Napoli September 2006. Plus national training.


43 Thank you

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