2 Overview How do we design effective assessments? Purpose of AssessmentsTypes of AssessmentsHow to give Effective Feedback to enhance student learning.Useable Examples
3 What is Assessment?“Assessment is today’s means of understanding how to modify tomorrow’s instruction.”- Carol TomilinsonUsing Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2015, from
5 Learner assessment follows from the objectives Learner assessment follows from the objectives. Based on the principles of backward design developed by Wiggins and McTighe (1998), instructors identify the lesson objective or desired results and then decide what they will accept as evidence of learners’ knowledge and skills.The concept of backward design holds that the instructor must begin with the end in mind (i.e., what the student should be able to know, understand, or do) and then map backward from the desired result to the current time and the students’ current ability/skill levels to determine the best way to reach the performance goal.Fact Sheet: Effective Lesson Planning
6 Goals vs. objectives Goals objectives General expectations of student outcomes.The OVERALL description and purpose of the unit/lesson/etc.Can be broad and vagueExample:Students will understand the Bill of Rights and the importance and impact it has on the lives of American citizens.Statement of what students should be able to do, or how they should change developmentally, as a result of instruction.Much more specific and MEASUREABLEExample:Students will able to list and explain each of the ten amendments of the Bill of Rights.
7 Four components of an objective A – AUDIENCEThe StudentB – BEHAVIORWhat the student will do?C – CONDITIONUnder what circumstance will the talk be accomplished?D – DEGREE (Criteria)Percent correct
8 LEARNING OUTCOME FORMAT STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO<<ACTION VERB>> <<SOMETHING>>
9 REMEMBER BLOOM’S TAXONOMY? THAT’S WHERE YOU FIND YOUR VERBS
11 Students will be able to… Look at the examples:Which ones are well written and assessable objectives?Which ones are not assessable?How could you rewrite them to make them assessable?
12 Important to remember: Assessment is a process.Step 1: Establishing learning objectivesStep 2: Provide learning opportunities that relate to the objectives.Step 3: Determine if learning has occurred.Step 4: Make revisions and improvements based on determinations of student learning.Evaluations are Judgments based on performance.Judgments about performance.Mostly refers to the assignment of grades based on student performance.Examples: tests and papersThus, evaluation can be part of assessment, but it is not assessment in and of itself.
13 Why Do You Assess. How Do You Assess. What Do You Assess Why Do You Assess? How Do You Assess? What Do You Assess? When Do You Assess?With your group take 5 to discuss the reasons you assess your students.
14 Learning Grades Why DO We Assess? Assessment Debate Some teachers talk about…Some teachers talk about…Assessment DebateLearningGradesV.S.Can these two coexist peacefully?Should one receive more emphasis over the other?Using Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2015, from
15 Using Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n. d. ) Using Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2015, from
16 How DO We Assess? Observations Self- and peer-evaluation Essays End-of-Course/Grade TestsInterviewsM.A.P./Dibbles/Star Reading/etc.Performance tasksQuestioningExhibitions and demonstrationsOthers?PortfoliosJournalsTeacher-created testsRubricsUsing Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2015, from
17 Using Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n. d. ) Using Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2015, from
18 When Do We Assess? At the beginning of the unit/time period? At the end?In the middle?Never?Everyday?Most teachers assess students at the end of an instructional unit/time period/sequence.However, research proves that “when assessment and instruction are interwoven, both the students and the teacher benefit.”Using Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2015, from
19 On-Going Assessments are the BEST! Diagnostic AssessmentFormative AssessmentSummative AssessmentMaking SureFinding out what your students knowKeeping Track & Checking-inFormative and Summative AssessmentNorthern Illinois University, Faculty Development and Instructional Design Center
20 Diagnostic Assessments Pre-tests Diagnostic Assessment can help you identify your students’ current knowledge of a subject, their skill sets and capabilities, and to clarify misconceptions before teaching takes place.Knowing your students’ strengths and weaknesses can help you better plan what to teach and how to teach it.Pre-tests (on content and abilities)Self-assessments (identifying skills and competencies)Discussion board responses (on content-specific prompts)Interviews (brief, private, 10-minute interview of each student)Formative and Summative AssessmentNorthern Illinois University, Faculty Development and Instructional Design Center
21 Formative Assessments Observations during in-class activities; of students non- verbal feedback during lectureHomework exercises as review for exams and class discussions)Reflections journals that are reviewed periodically during the semesterQuestion and answer sessions, both formal—planned and informal—spontaneousConferences between the instructor and student at various points in the semesterIn-class activities where students informally present their resultsStudent feedback collected by periodically answering specific question about the instruction and their self- evaluation of performance and progress.Formative assessment provides feedback and information during the instructional process, while learning is taking place, and while learning is occurring.Formative assessment measures student progress but it can also assess your own progress as an instructor.Formative and Summative AssessmentNorthern Illinois University, Faculty Development and Instructional Design Center
22 Ongoing Assessment Strategies Take 10 Look over the list of examples.Make note of any questions you may have.How could you use these strategies to drive instruction?How will ongoing assessment help you teach for success?
23 Summative Assessments Summative assessment takes place AFTER the learning has been completed.Provides information and feedback that sums up the teaching and learning process. Should match the material taught and reflect the formative assessments.RubricsOften developed around a set of standards or expectations, can be used for summative assessment.Can be given to students before they begin working on a particular project so they know what is expected of them (precisely what they have to do) for each of the criteria.Help you to be more objective when deriving a final, summative grade by following the same criteria students used to complete the project.Formative and Summative AssessmentNorthern Illinois University, Faculty Development and Instructional Design Center
24 Types of Summative Assessments Examinations (major, high-stakes exams)Final examination (a truly summative assessment)Term papers (drafts submitted throughout the semester would be a formative assessment)Projects (project phases submitted at various completion points could be formatively assessed)Portfolios (could also be assessed during it’s development as a formative assessment)PerformancesStudent evaluation of the course (teaching effectiveness)Instructor self-evaluationFormative and Summative AssessmentNorthern Illinois University, Faculty Development and Instructional Design Center
25 What is the Difference?“Summative assessment is more product-oriented and assesses the final product, whereas formative assessment focuses on the process toward completing the product. Once the project is completed, no further revisions can be made. If, however, students are allowed to make revisions, the assessment becomes formative, where students can take advantage of the opportunity to improve.”Formative and Summative AssessmentNorthern Illinois University, Faculty Development and Instructional Design Center
26 Using Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n. d. ) Using Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2015, from
27 Using Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n. d. ) Using Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2015, from
29 EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK 1. It MUST be timely. 2. It MUST be SPECIFIC. 3. It MUST be understandable to the student.4. It MUST allow the student to act on feedbackRefine, Revise, Practice, and RetryUsing Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2015, from
30 Using Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n. d. ) Using Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2015, from
31 Evaluative feedbackEvaluative feedback involves a judgment by the teacher based on implicit or explicit norms.Evaluative feedback may take the form of:Approval: “That’s a good essay.” “You’ve done well.” “Good job!”Disapproval: “That’s not good enough.” “Not your best.”Reward: Gold stars//A+/StickersPunishment: “Write it out again.”Effective Feedback. (2009). New Zealand Ministry of Education.
32 Descriptive feedback Looks towards improvement. Descriptive feedback: focuses on identified learning outcomes and makes specific reference to the student’s achievement.Looks towards improvement.An example of descriptive feedback:“That’s a good introduction because you have covered the main points we discussed at the beginning. Now … which points do you think you should expand on?”Effective Feedback. (2009). New Zealand Ministry of Education.
33 Summary Why do we Assess? How should we Assess? What are the THREE types of assessment?What is the purpose of those three?How can we make our formative assessments more effective and meaningful to our students?
34 Questions?For further information or later questions please feel free to contact me at or
35 Works citedBoysen, G. (2012, January 1). A Guide to Writing Learning Objectives for Teachers of Psychology. Retrieved March 3, 2015, from Tomlinson, C. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms (2nd ed.). Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Effective Feedback. (2009). New Zealand Ministry of Education. Retrieved March 3, 2015, from content/download/2520/19023/version/1/file/Effective+feedback.ppt&ei=6t31VJ7ULsWVNqPGg9AJ&usg=AFQjCNEJFBeWEf8kcS DG1HPHCIaa9bA5cw&bvm=bv ,d.eXY Fact Sheet: Effective Lesson Planning | Teaching Excellence in Adult Literacy (TEAL). (n.d.). Retrieved March 3, 2015, from Kelly, M. (n.d.). How to Avoid Common Mistakes When Writing Learning Objectives. Retrieved March 3, 2015, from Objectives.htm Using Assessment to Drive Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2015, from Wees, D. (n.d.). 56 Different Examples of Formative Assessment. Retrieved March 3, 2015, from elayms=3000&slide=id.p