3 Atomist School of Pluralists Milesian SchoolEleatic SchoolPythagoreanPluralist SchoolAtomist School of PluralistsThalesAnaximanderSolonAnaximenesXenophanesPythagorasCleisthenesParmenidesHeraclitus520 in Crotona established a secret religious societyZenoEmpedoclesMelissusAnaxagorasLeucippus ca.450DemocritusSophistsGorgiasCratylusProtagorasSocrates
8 希臘七賢（Seven Sages ） Solon of Athens – "Nothing in excess" 過猶不及、寧缺勿濫 Chilon of Sparta – "Know thyself"認識你自己、撒泡尿照照鏡子Thales of Miletus – "To bring surety brings ruin"求治反亂 Cf. Edmund Burke ( )Bias of Priene – "Too many workers spoil the work"人多口雜、人多難辦事（ vs.人多好辦事 ）Cleobulus of Lindos – "Moderation is impeccable"事緩則圓Pittacus of Mytilene – "Know thine opportunity"把握機會、洞燭機先Periander of Corinth – “Forethought in all things”凡事三思、謀定而後動
9 Thales之格言Of all things that are, the most ancient is God, for he is uncreated. (岳不群與藍鳳凰之對話）The most beautiful is the universe, for it is God's.The greatest is space, for it holds all things.The swiftest is mind, for it speeds everywhere.The strongest, necessity, for it masters all.The wisest, time, for it brings everything to light.
10 water is substance Thales所問的問題：變化從何而來？ Thales之改變：from which is everything that exists and from which it first becomes and into which it is rendered at last, its substance remaining under it, but transforming in qualities, that is the element and principle of things that are.For it is necessary that there be some nature, either one or more than one, from which become the other things of the object being saved... Thales the founder of this type of philosophy says that it is water.Thales drew his conclusion from seeing moist substance turn into air, slime and earth. It seems clear that Thales viewed the Earth as solidifying from the water on which it floated and which surrounded Ocean
13 Anaximander argues that water cannot embrace all of the opposites found in nature — for example, water can only be wet, never dry — and therefore cannot be the one primary substance; nor could any of the other candidates.He postulated the apeiron (limitless) as a substance that, although not directly perceptible to us, could explain the opposites he saw around him.
14 According to him, the Universe originates in the separation of opposites in the primordial （原本的）matter. It embraces the opposites of hot and cold, wet and dry, and directs the movement of things; an entire host of shapes and differences then grow（實體不能是對立中之經驗物或有限者）
15 Anaximander maintains that all dying things are returning to the element from which they came (apeiron).The one surviving fragment of Anaximander‘s writing deals with this matter：“Whence things have their origin, Thence also their destruction happens, According to necessity; For they give to each other justice and recompense（報償）for their injustice In conformity with the ordinance of Time.”生即有滅，斯為必然。償善懲惡，時不寬貸。
17 He held that the air, with its variety of contents, its universal presence, its vague associations in popular fancy with the phenomena of life and growth, is the source of all that exists.Everything is air at different degrees of density, and under the influence of heat, which expands, and of cold, which contracts its volume, it gives rise to the several phases of existence. The process is gradual, and takes place in two directions, as heat or cold predominates. In this way was formed a broad disk of earth, floating on the circumambient air.
18 Similar condensations produced the sun and stars; and the flaming state of these bodies is due to the velocity of their motions. He states:“Just as our soul, being air, holds us together（人要一口氣）, so do breath and air encompass the whole world."It was actually "aer" which he believed to be the common characteristic between all things. "Aer" is the Greek word for a mist rather than just pure air.綜合Thales 與Anaximanders
19 Milesian School 之意義The theoretical human has become a reality. The way of thinking has in its basic form moved away from the mythological thinking (or mythos) and into the domain of the theoretical thinking (or logos).From now on it is about explaining the universal and the general. Everything in the universe can now be approached by the thoughts of humans.開啟「變／不變」之討論
20 變與不變、一與多、普遍與特殊 一或多 Eleatic School：不變-一-普遍 Heraclitus：莫不變-多-特殊 多-多間關係 Pythagorean：數字和諧Pluralist School：質Atomist School of Pluralists：量
21 Eleatic School之先驅: Xenophanes 570 – 480 BC （約與Anaximenes同時）波斯征服Ionia後，遷往大希臘，在Elea定居。詩人，以批評希臘多神教與真理觀著稱
22 知識論立場 Xenophanesthere actually exists a truth of reality, but that humans as mortals are unable to know it.（生也有涯，知也無涯） Therefore, it is possible to act only on the basis of working hypotheses - we may act as if we knew the truth, as long as we know that this is extremely unlikely.This aspect of Xenophanes was brought out again by the late Sir Karl Popper and is a basis of Critical rationalism.
23 XenophanesBefore Xenophanes, the method of the natural philosophers was inductive. That is, their ideas were based on observations of the world. And, their proofs were empirical and direct. However, Xenophanes pointed out that these sorts of ideas were relative. That is, different people had different perceptions of the world; therefore, they had different ideas of the world. Their ideas about the world may be true, but they could not know it. So, according to Xenophanes, we cannot be sure that ideas about the world that are inductively derived are true. That is, we cannot be sure that ideas about the world that are based on our perceptions of the world are true. This posed a problem for the presocratics.
24 But, this is still induction, based on our perceptions of the world. XenophanesHeraclitus的回答： He looked at what we can all agree to, that all is change. Inductively, if we look at the world, everything changes.But, this is still induction, based on our perceptions of the world.Parmemides 的回答：the only truth is that that is deductively determined. Therefore, inductive "truths" are only opinions.
25 神是人之投射 XenophanesThe Ethiops say that their gods are flat-nosed and black, While the Thracians say that theirs have blue eyes and red hair. Yet if cattle or horses or lions had hands and could draw, And could sculpture like men, then the horses would draw their gods Like horses, and cattle like cattle; and each they would shape Bodies of gods in the likeness, each kind, of their own
26 Xenophanesthere was only one god -- namely, the world. God is one incorporeal（至神無形） eternal being, and, like the universe, spherical in form（圓融）; that he is of the same nature with the universe, comprehending all things within himself; is intelligent, and pervades all things (泛神論Pan-theism), but bears no resemblance to human nature either in body or mind.
27 There is no evidence that Xenophanes regarded this 'god' with any religious feeling, and all we are told about him (or rather about it) is purely negative. He is quite unlike a man, and has no special organs of sense, but 'sees all over, thinks all over, hears all over' (fr. 24). Further, he does not go about from place to place (fr. 26), but does everything 'without toil (fr. 25).
28 Xenophanesif there had ever been a time when nothing existed, nothing could ever have existed. Whatever is, always has been from eternity, without deriving its existence from any prior principles.Nature, he believed, is one and without limit; that what is one is similar in all its parts, else it would be many; that the one infinite, eternal, and homogeneous universe is immutable and incapable of change.
30 有 vs. 沒有there are two ways of inquiry: that it is, that it is not. He said that the latter argument is never feasible because nothing can not be:For never shall this prevail, that things that are not are.
31 For this view, that That Which Is Not exists, can never predominate For this view, that That Which Is Not exists, can never predominate. You must debar your thought from this way of search, nor let ordinary experience in its variety force you along this way, (namely, that of allowing) the eye, sightless as it is, and the ear, full of sound, and the tongue, to rule; but (you must) judge by means of the Reason (Logos) the much-contested proof which is expounded by me.
33 Zeno’s Paradox Achilles and the tortoise The dichotomy paradox "You can never catch up.“In a race, the quickest runner can never overtake the slowest, since the pursuer must first reach the point whence the pursued started, so that the slower must always hold a leadThe dichotomy paradox"You cannot even start.“That which is in locomotion must arrive at the half-way stage before it arrives at the goal.The arrow paradox"You cannot even move.“If everything when it occupies an equal space is at rest, and if that which is in locomotion is always occupying such a space at any moment, the flying arrow is therefore motionless.
34 Heraclitus：變動BCEphesus in IoniaThe weeping philosopher
35 哭與笑Democritus had gone insane and was laughing at everything obsessively, including weddings and funerals. Hippocrates found him surrounded by books and the bodies of animals which he had dissected to examine their bile. He said he was investigating the causes of insanity. On being questioned as to why he found the matters at which he laughed comical, he replied with the vanity argument, that all is "folly and baseness" and a waste of time, which is essentially what Heraclitus had said. Hippocrates gave him a "passing" on mental health and went away.八大山人？
36 CHANGE is real, and stability illusory the nature of everything is change itself
37 殘篇Everything flows and nothing is left (unchanged), or Everything flows and nothing stands still, or All things are in motion and nothing remains still.“By cosmic rule, as day yields night, so winter summer, war peace, plenty famine. All things change. Air penetrates the lump of myrrh, until the joining bodies die and rise again in smoke called incense."
38 殘篇“Men do not know how that which is drawn in different directions harmonises with itself. The harmonious structure of the world depends upon opposite tension like that of the bow （弓） and the lyre（琴）.""This universe, which is the same for all, has not been made by any god or man, but it always has been, is, and will be an ever-living fire, kindling itself by regular measures and going out by regular measures“
39 最著名的話"Ποταμοῖς τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἐμβαίνομέν τε καὶ οὐκ ἐμβαίνομεν, εἶμέν τε καὶ οὐκ εἶμεν." "We both step and do not step in the same rivers. We are and are not.“Or：”No man ever steps in the same river twice, for it is not the same river and he is not the same man .“
40 LogosThe idea of the logos （道）is also credited to him, as he proclaims that everything originates out of the logos. Further, Heraclitus said "I am as I am not", and "He who hears not me but the logos will say: All is one."此亦一是非、彼亦一是非
41 Pythagoreanism Pythagoras of Samos Between 580 and 572 BC –between BCIonia520 in Crotona established a secret religious society
42 名字： Pyth-ian乃Delphi之Apollo神廟， agor-意為「說」， "He spoke (agor-) the truth no less than did the Pythian (Pyth-)."與「佛」同義，皆有「大覺」、「智慧」之意。Pythagorean theorem: a2＋b2=c2早年曾遊歷西亞與埃及，或因此而有宗教與數學傾向
43 number is the ruler of forms and ideas and the cause of gods and demons. Pythagoras and his students believed that everything was related to mathematics and that numbers were the ultimate reality and, through mathematics, everything could be predicted and measured in rhythmic patterns or cycles.
44 Knowledge of the essence of being can be found in the form of numbers Knowledge of the essence of being can be found in the form of numbers. If this is taken a step further, one can say that because mathematics is an unseen essence, the essence of being is an unseen characteristic that can be encountered by the study of mathematics.
45 One of Pythagoras' beliefs was that the essence of being is number One of Pythagoras' beliefs was that the essence of being is number. Thus, being relies on stability of all things that create the universe.Things like health relied on a stable proportion of elements; too much or too little of one thing causes an imbalance that makes a being unhealthy.
46 靈魂轉世：the soul were located in the brain and not the heart 靈魂轉世：the soul were located in the brain and not the heart. He himself claimed to have lived four lives that he could remember in detail, and heard the cry of his dead friend in the bark of a dog.苦行僧、食素、冥想（靜坐）、戒律
48 Pluralist School: Empedocles BCcitizen of Agrigentum, a Greek colony in Sicily
49 the origin of the cosmogenic theory of the four classical elements all matter is made up of four elements: water, earth, air and fire. Empedocles called these the four "roots"; the term "element" (στοιχεῖον)Apart from these four roots, Empedocles postulated something called Love (φιλία) to explain the attraction of different forms of matter, and of something called Strife (νεῖκος) to account for their separationLove and Strife explain their variation and harmony
51 he may have been a soldier of the Persian army when Clazomenae was suppressed during the Ionia Revolt定居雅典。與Pericles相善He attempted to give a scientific account of eclipse, meteors, rainbows and the sun, which he described as a mass of blazing metal, larger than the Peloponnese. The heavenly bodies, he asserted, were masses of stone torn from the earth and ignited by rapid rotation. However, these theories brought him into collision with the popular faith; Anaxagoras' views on such things as heavenly bodies were considered "dangerous."About 450 Anaxagoras was arrested by Pericles' political opponents on a charge of contravening the established religion (some say the charge was one of Medism). It took Pericles' power of persuasion to secure his release. Even so he was forced to retire from Athens to Lampsacus in Ionia (c BC).
52 All things have existed from the beginning All things have existed from the beginning. But originally they existed in infinitesimally small fragments of themselves, endless in number and inextricably combined.All things existed in this mass, but in a confused and indistinguishable form. There were the seeds (spermata) or miniatures of corn and flesh and gold in the primitive mixture; but these parts, of like nature with their wholes had to be eliminated from the complex mass before they could receive a definite name and character.Mind arranged the segregation of like from unlike. This peculiar thing, called Mind (Nous), was no less illimitable than the chaotic mass, but, unlike the logos of Heraclitus, it stood pure and independent (mounos ef eoutou), a thing of finer texture, alike in all its manifestations and everywhere the same. This subtle agent, possessed of all knowledge and power, is especially seen ruling in all the forms of life.
53 Mind causes motion. It rotated the primitive mixture, starting in one corner or point, and gradually extended until it gave distinctness and reality to the aggregates of like parts, working something like a centrifuge, and eventually creating the known cosmos. But even after it had done its best, the original intermixture of things was not wholly overcome. No one thing in the world is ever abruptly separated, as by the blow of an axe, from the rest of things.
54 from original chaos to present arrangements Anaxagoras proceeded to give some account of the stages in the process. The division into cold mist and warm ether first broke the spell of confusion. With increasing cold, the former gave rise to water, earth and stones. The seeds of life which continued floating in the air were carried down with the rains and produced vegetation. Animals, including man, sprang from the warm and moist clay.If these things be so, then the evidence of the senses must be held in slight esteem. We seem to see things coming into being and passing from it; but reflection tells us that decease and growth only mean a new aggregation (sugkrisis) and disruption (diakrisis). （生滅即聚散）Thus Anaxagoras distrusted the senses, and gave the preference to the conclusions of reflection.
55 地位Anaxagoras marked a turning-point in the history of philosophy. With him speculation passes from the colonies of Greece to settle at Athens. By the theory of minute constituents of things, and his emphasis on mechanical processes in the formation of order, he paved the way for the atomic theory.However, his enunciation of the order that comes from an intelligent mind suggested the theory that nature is the work of design.
56 Atomist School of Pluralists Leucippus 約與Empedocles、Anaxagoras同時，AbderaNothing happens at random (maten), but everything from reason (ek logou) and by necessity.
57 Atomist School of Pluralists Democritus BCAbdera in ThraceAtoma'he prefers to discover a causality rather than become a king of Persia'.
58 兩種知識Of knowledge there are two forms, one legitimate, one bastard. To the bastard belong all this group: sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch. The other is legitimate and separate from that.When the bastard can no longer see any smaller, or hear, or smell, or taste, or perceive by touch, but finer matters have to be examined, then comes the legitimate, since it has a finer organ of perception.” (Fr. 11 Sextus, Adv. Math. VII, 138).But we in actuality grasp nothing for certain, but what shifts in accordance with the condition of the body and of the things (atoms) which enter it and press upon it. (Fr. 9 Sextus Adv. Math. VII 136).
59 感覺different tastes were a result of differently shaped atoms in contact with the tongue.Smells and sounds could be explained similarly. Vision works by the eye receiving "images" or "effluences" of bodies that are emanated.Sweet exists by convention, bitter by convention, color by convention; but in reality atoms and the void alone exist.senses could not provide a direct or certain knowledge of the world. In his words, "It is necessary to realize that by this principle man is cut off from the real."
60 靈魂Though intelligence is allowed to explain the organization of the world, according to Democritus, he does give place for the existence of a soul, which he contends is composed of exceedingly fine and spherical atoma.He holds that, "spherical atoma move because it is their nature never to be still, and that as they move they draw the whole body along with them, and set it in motion."In this way, he viewed soul-atoma as being similar to fire-atoma: small, spherical, capable of penetrating solid bodies and good examples of spontaneous motion.
63 Sophist之始： Protagoras BC因瀆神被逐出ATHENMan is the measure of all things
64 Man is the measure of all things: of things which are, that they are, and of things which are not, that they are not （物之是其所是、非其所非，率以個人為衡 ）“Man”：單數個人Concerning the gods, I have no means of knowing whether they exist or not or of what sort they may be, because of the obscurity of the subject, and the brevity of human life
66 Nihilistic arguments Nothing exists; Even if something exists, nothing can be known about it; andEven if something can be known about it, knowledge about it can't be communicated to others.der erste, dass nichts ist; der zweite, dass, auch wenn ist, es dem Menschen nicht erfassbar ist, und drittens, dass, auch wenn es erfassbar ist, nicht dem anderen mitteilbar und erklärbar ist.
67 SocratesBCSophist or philosophervirtue is Knowledge
68 Xenopon & Plato之記載凱勒豐（Chaerephon）在Delphi的神諭處詢問是否有人比蘇格拉底更聰明；神諭處的回答是否定的。蘇格拉底解釋：這個答案是另一個謎題——要他開始尋找比他更聰明的人。他質問雅典的人們有關他們對於至善、美麗、和美德的看法，發現他們其實根本一無所知，但卻以為他們知道的很多，蘇格拉底於是總結道：他比其他人聰明的地方僅只在於他體認到他什麼也不知道（he was wise only insofar as "that what I don't know, I don't think I know." ）。
70 Methode：Dialectics、問定義。 助產士（μαῖα） 之說有道德觀念藏人胸中。Virtue is knowledge 知道，即能做事更完善。估量人的行為，有客觀標準→需定義，由「洞見」提供。各行各業需對對象瞭解，故公民生活亦應瞭解其對象：自己。德性：對「適合自己目的」的東西之認識；有德性的人：按自己認識行事的人，無人明知故犯，除非認識錯誤。
71 弟子Aristippus of Cyrene（非洲、東利比亞）早年師Protagras，快樂主義(Hedonism)。I own, I’m not owned. 繼者：Theodorus, Annikeris, Hegesias, Euemerus＿＿伊壁鳩魯派Antistenes of Athen, 創Cynic school (在Kynosarges體育館講學故)，弟子Diogenes of Sinope最有名。為德性而德性，拒絕快樂、享受＿＿回到自然狀態（古代盧梭）＿＿斯多葛派。。Euclid of Megara。Socrtaes + Eleatic school (Parmenides)。「德」為「唯一存在」。又承Zeno辯論術。扯謊者自承說謊、一粒穀不成堆。