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古希臘早期哲學.

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1 古希臘早期哲學

2 或名「先蘇哲學」Pre-Socratic philosophy Aristotle 所建構之歷史?
「這條魚是在一次大戰結束後一年捕獲而後放生的」? Aristotle 所建構之歷史?

3 Atomist School of Pluralists
Milesian School Eleatic School Pythagorean Pluralist School Atomist School of Pluralists Thales Anaximander Solon Anaximenes Xenophanes Pythagoras Cleisthenes Parmenides Heraclitus 520 in Crotona established a secret religious society Zeno Empedocles Melissus Anaxagoras Leucippus ca.450 Democritus Sophists Gorgias Cratylus Protagoras Socrates

4

5 米利都學派 Milesian School, School of Miletus
米利都(Milet, Miletus)位於小亞細亞 Ionia地區,乃希臘殖民地。亦為科學、數學(航海…)、 醫學、經濟與文化中心(與中亞、埃及文化接觸頻繁)。 “米利都啟蒙” Thales ( BC) Anaximander ( BC) Anaximenes ( BC)

6 Thales BC water is substance

7 佚聞 經濟:曾預言氣候變化,因此輸入橄欖壓榨機 政治:曾預言日蝕,因此戰勝Iranians 科學:曾測量金字塔高度 希臘七賢之一

8 希臘七賢(Seven Sages ) Solon of Athens – "Nothing in excess" 過猶不及、寧缺勿濫
Chilon of Sparta – "Know thyself" 認識你自己、撒泡尿照照鏡子 Thales of Miletus – "To bring surety brings ruin" 求治反亂 Cf. Edmund Burke ( ) Bias of Priene – "Too many workers spoil the work" 人多口雜、人多難辦事( vs.人多好辦事 ) Cleobulus of Lindos – "Moderation is impeccable" 事緩則圓 Pittacus of Mytilene – "Know thine opportunity" 把握機會、洞燭機先 Periander of Corinth – “Forethought in all things” 凡事三思、謀定而後動

9 Thales之格言 Of all things that are, the most ancient is God, for he is uncreated. (岳不群與藍鳳凰之對話) The most beautiful is the universe, for it is God's. The greatest is space, for it holds all things. The swiftest is mind, for it speeds everywhere. The strongest, necessity, for it masters all. The wisest, time, for it brings everything to light.

10 water is substance Thales所問的問題:變化從何而來?
Thales之改變:from which is everything that exists and from which it first becomes and into which it is rendered at last, its substance remaining under it, but transforming in qualities, that is the element and principle of things that are. For it is necessary that there be some nature, either one or more than one, from which become the other things of the object being saved... Thales the founder of this type of philosophy says that it is water. Thales drew his conclusion from seeing moist substance turn into air, slime and earth. It seems clear that Thales viewed the Earth as solidifying from the water on which it floated and which surrounded Ocean

11 Anaximander BC Apeiron is substance

12 Thales之同鄉與學生 製作過世界地圖 曾擔任某城邦之領導人

13 Anaximander argues that water cannot embrace all of the opposites found in nature — for example, water can only be wet, never dry — and therefore cannot be the one primary substance; nor could any of the other candidates. He postulated the apeiron (limitless) as a substance that, although not directly perceptible to us, could explain the opposites he saw around him.

14 According to him, the Universe originates in the separation of opposites in the primordial (原本的)matter. It embraces the opposites of hot and cold, wet and dry, and directs the movement of things; an entire host of shapes and differences then grow (實體不能是對立中之經驗物或有限者)

15 Anaximander maintains that all dying things are returning to the element from which they came (apeiron). The one surviving fragment of Anaximander‘s writing deals with this matter: “Whence things have their origin, Thence also their destruction happens, According to necessity; For they give to each other justice and recompense(報償)for their injustice In conformity with the ordinance of Time.”生即有滅,斯為必然。償善懲惡,時不寬貸。

16 Anaximenes BC Aer is substance

17 He held that the air, with its variety of contents, its universal presence, its vague associations in popular fancy with the phenomena of life and growth, is the source of all that exists. Everything is air at different degrees of density, and under the influence of heat, which expands, and of cold, which contracts its volume, it gives rise to the several phases of existence. The process is gradual, and takes place in two directions, as heat or cold predominates. In this way was formed a broad disk of earth, floating on the circumambient air.

18 Similar condensations produced the sun and stars; and the flaming state of these bodies is due to the velocity of their motions. He states: “Just as our soul, being air, holds us together(人要一口氣), so do breath and air encompass the whole world." It was actually "aer" which he believed to be the common characteristic between all things. "Aer" is the Greek word for a mist rather than just pure air. 綜合Thales 與Anaximanders

19 Milesian School 之意義 The theoretical human has become a reality. The way of thinking has in its basic form moved away from the mythological thinking (or mythos) and into the domain of the theoretical thinking (or logos). From now on it is about explaining the universal and the general. Everything in the universe can now be approached by the thoughts of humans. 開啟「變/不變」之討論

20 變與不變、一與多、普遍與特殊 一或多 Eleatic School:不變-一-普遍 Heraclitus:莫不變-多-特殊 多-多間關係
Pythagorean:數字和諧 Pluralist School:質 Atomist School of Pluralists:量

21 Eleatic School之先驅: Xenophanes
570 – 480 BC (約與Anaximenes同時) 波斯征服Ionia後,遷往大希臘,在Elea定居。 詩人,以批評希臘多神教與真理觀著稱

22 知識論立場 Xenophanes there actually exists a truth of reality, but that humans as mortals are unable to know it.(生也有涯,知也無涯) Therefore, it is possible to act only on the basis of working hypotheses - we may act as if we knew the truth, as long as we know that this is extremely unlikely. This aspect of Xenophanes was brought out again by the late Sir Karl Popper and is a basis of Critical rationalism.

23 Xenophanes Before Xenophanes, the method of the natural philosophers was inductive. That is, their ideas were based on observations of the world. And, their proofs were empirical and direct. However, Xenophanes pointed out that these sorts of ideas were relative. That is, different people had different perceptions of the world; therefore, they had different ideas of the world. Their ideas about the world may be true, but they could not know it. So, according to Xenophanes, we cannot be sure that ideas about the world that are inductively derived are true. That is, we cannot be sure that ideas about the world that are based on our perceptions of the world are true. This posed a problem for the presocratics.

24 But, this is still induction, based on our perceptions of the world.
Xenophanes Heraclitus的回答: He looked at what we can all agree to, that all is change. Inductively, if we look at the world, everything changes. But, this is still induction, based on our perceptions of the world. Parmemides 的回答:the only truth is that that is deductively determined. Therefore, inductive "truths" are only opinions.

25 神是人之投射 Xenophanes The Ethiops say that their gods are flat-nosed and black, While the Thracians say that theirs have blue eyes and red hair. Yet if cattle or horses or lions had hands and could draw, And could sculpture like men, then the horses would draw their gods Like horses, and cattle like cattle; and each they would shape Bodies of gods in the likeness, each kind, of their own

26 Xenophanes there was only one god -- namely, the world. God is one incorporeal(至神無形) eternal being, and, like the universe, spherical in form(圓融); that he is of the same nature with the universe, comprehending all things within himself; is intelligent, and pervades all things (泛神論Pan-theism), but bears no resemblance to human nature either in body or mind.

27 There is no evidence that Xenophanes regarded this 'god' with any religious feeling, and all we are told about him (or rather about it) is purely negative. He is quite unlike a man, and has no special organs of sense, but 'sees all over, thinks all over, hears all over' (fr. 24). Further, he does not go about from place to place (fr. 26), but does everything 'without toil (fr. 25).

28 Xenophanes if there had ever been a time when nothing existed, nothing could ever have existed. Whatever is, always has been from eternity, without deriving its existence from any prior principles. Nature, he believed, is one and without limit; that what is one is similar in all its parts, else it would be many; that the one infinite, eternal, and homogeneous universe is immutable and incapable of change.

29 Eleatic School之主角: Parmenides
BC 或為Elea貴族 On Nature餘150行殘篇論aletheia 與 doxa

30 有 vs. 沒有 there are two ways of inquiry: that it is, that it is not. He said that the latter argument is never feasible because nothing can not be: For never shall this prevail, that things that are not are.

31 For this view, that That Which Is Not exists, can never predominate
For this view, that That Which Is Not exists, can never predominate. You must debar your thought from this way of search, nor let ordinary experience in its variety force you along this way, (namely, that of allowing) the eye, sightless as it is, and the ear, full of sound, and the tongue, to rule; but (you must) judge by means of the Reason (Logos) the much-contested proof which is expounded by me.

32 Zeno of Elea ca. 490BC-430BC? SOPHIST之先驅

33 Zeno’s Paradox Achilles and the tortoise The dichotomy paradox
"You can never catch up.“ In a race, the quickest runner can never overtake the slowest, since the pursuer must first reach the point whence the pursued started, so that the slower must always hold a lead The dichotomy paradox "You cannot even start.“ That which is in locomotion must arrive at the half-way stage before it arrives at the goal. The arrow paradox "You cannot even move.“ If everything when it occupies an equal space is at rest, and if that which is in locomotion is always occupying such a space at any moment, the flying arrow is therefore motionless.

34 Heraclitus:變動 BC Ephesus in Ionia The weeping philosopher

35 哭與笑 Democritus had gone insane and was laughing at everything obsessively, including weddings and funerals. Hippocrates found him surrounded by books and the bodies of animals which he had dissected to examine their bile. He said he was investigating the causes of insanity. On being questioned as to why he found the matters at which he laughed comical, he replied with the vanity argument, that all is "folly and baseness" and a waste of time, which is essentially what Heraclitus had said. Hippocrates gave him a "passing" on mental health and went away. 八大山人?

36 CHANGE is real, and stability illusory
the nature of everything is change itself

37 殘篇 Everything flows and nothing is left (unchanged), or Everything flows and nothing stands still, or All things are in motion and nothing remains still. “By cosmic rule, as day yields night, so winter summer, war peace, plenty famine. All things change. Air penetrates the lump of myrrh, until the joining bodies die and rise again in smoke called incense."

38 殘篇 “Men do not know how that which is drawn in different directions harmonises with itself. The harmonious structure of the world depends upon opposite tension like that of the bow (弓) and the lyre(琴)." "This universe, which is the same for all, has not been made by any god or man, but it always has been, is, and will be an ever-living fire, kindling itself by regular measures and going out by regular measures“

39 最著名的話 "Ποταμοῖς τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἐμβαίνομέν τε καὶ οὐκ ἐμβαίνομεν, εἶμέν τε καὶ οὐκ εἶμεν." "We both step and do not step in the same rivers. We are and are not.“ Or:”No man ever steps in the same river twice, for it is not the same river and he is not the same man .“

40 Logos The idea of the logos (道)is also credited to him, as he proclaims that everything originates out of the logos. Further, Heraclitus said "I am as I am not", and "He who hears not me but the logos will say: All is one." 此亦一是非、彼亦一是非

41 Pythagoreanism Pythagoras of Samos
Between 580 and 572 BC –between BC Ionia 520 in Crotona established a secret religious society

42 名字: Pyth-ian乃Delphi之Apollo神廟, agor-意為「說」, "He spoke (agor-) the truth no less than did the Pythian (Pyth-)." 與「佛」同義,皆有「大覺」、「智慧」之意。 Pythagorean theorem: a2+b2=c2 早年曾遊歷西亞與埃及,或因此而有宗教與數學傾向

43 number is the ruler of forms and ideas and the cause of gods and demons.
Pythagoras and his students believed that everything was related to mathematics and that numbers were the ultimate reality and, through mathematics, everything could be predicted and measured in rhythmic patterns or cycles.

44 Knowledge of the essence of being can be found in the form of numbers
Knowledge of the essence of being can be found in the form of numbers. If this is taken a step further, one can say that because mathematics is an unseen essence, the essence of being is an unseen characteristic that can be encountered by the study of mathematics.

45 One of Pythagoras' beliefs was that the essence of being is number
One of Pythagoras' beliefs was that the essence of being is number. Thus, being relies on stability of all things that create the universe. Things like health relied on a stable proportion of elements; too much or too little of one thing causes an imbalance that makes a being unhealthy.

46 靈魂轉世:the soul were located in the brain and not the heart
靈魂轉世:the soul were located in the brain and not the heart. He himself claimed to have lived four lives that he could remember in detail, and heard the cry of his dead friend in the bark of a dog. 苦行僧、食素、冥想(靜坐)、戒律

47 到神廟時要先敬神,路途中不要說話,不要做與日常生活有關的事物。
切莫穿著鞋向神獻祭和禮拜。 避免走大路,要走小道。 聽命於神靈,最重要的是保持緘默。 切勿用鐵器撥火。 幫助負重的人,不要幫卸重的人。(雪裡送炭 vs.錦上添花) 穿鞋從右腳開始,洗腳從左腳開始。 不准碰獻祭的魚。 從家中出門後切莫向後看,因為復仇女神緊跟著你。 飼養白公雞,但切忌以白公雞祭祀。 切勿讓燕子在屋簷下築巢。 切莫吃豆子、心臟。 桌上掉下來的東西不要吃。

48 Pluralist School: Empedocles
BC citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek colony in Sicily

49 the origin of the cosmogenic theory of the four classical elements
all matter is made up of four elements: water, earth, air and fire. Empedocles called these the four "roots"; the term "element" (στοιχεῖον) Apart from these four roots, Empedocles postulated something called Love (φιλία) to explain the attraction of different forms of matter, and of something called Strife (νεῖκος) to account for their separation Love and Strife explain their variation and harmony

50 Pluralist School: Anaxagoras
BC Ionia, 定居雅典

51 he may have been a soldier of the Persian army when Clazomenae was suppressed during the Ionia Revolt 定居雅典。與Pericles相善 He attempted to give a scientific account of eclipse, meteors, rainbows and the sun, which he described as a mass of blazing metal, larger than the Peloponnese. The heavenly bodies, he asserted, were masses of stone torn from the earth and ignited by rapid rotation. However, these theories brought him into collision with the popular faith; Anaxagoras' views on such things as heavenly bodies were considered "dangerous." About 450 Anaxagoras was arrested by Pericles' political opponents on a charge of contravening the established religion (some say the charge was one of Medism). It took Pericles' power of persuasion to secure his release. Even so he was forced to retire from Athens to Lampsacus in Ionia (c BC).

52 All things have existed from the beginning
All things have existed from the beginning. But originally they existed in infinitesimally small fragments of themselves, endless in number and inextricably combined. All things existed in this mass, but in a confused and indistinguishable form. There were the seeds (spermata) or miniatures of corn and flesh and gold in the primitive mixture; but these parts, of like nature with their wholes had to be eliminated from the complex mass before they could receive a definite name and character. Mind arranged the segregation of like from unlike. This peculiar thing, called Mind (Nous), was no less illimitable than the chaotic mass, but, unlike the logos of Heraclitus, it stood pure and independent (mounos ef eoutou), a thing of finer texture, alike in all its manifestations and everywhere the same. This subtle agent, possessed of all knowledge and power, is especially seen ruling in all the forms of life.

53 Mind causes motion. It rotated the primitive mixture, starting in one corner or point, and gradually extended until it gave distinctness and reality to the aggregates of like parts, working something like a centrifuge, and eventually creating the known cosmos. But even after it had done its best, the original intermixture of things was not wholly overcome. No one thing in the world is ever abruptly separated, as by the blow of an axe, from the rest of things.

54 from original chaos to present arrangements
Anaxagoras proceeded to give some account of the stages in the process. The division into cold mist and warm ether first broke the spell of confusion. With increasing cold, the former gave rise to water, earth and stones. The seeds of life which continued floating in the air were carried down with the rains and produced vegetation. Animals, including man, sprang from the warm and moist clay. If these things be so, then the evidence of the senses must be held in slight esteem. We seem to see things coming into being and passing from it; but reflection tells us that decease and growth only mean a new aggregation (sugkrisis) and disruption (diakrisis). (生滅即聚散)Thus Anaxagoras distrusted the senses, and gave the preference to the conclusions of reflection.

55 地位 Anaxagoras marked a turning-point in the history of philosophy. With him speculation passes from the colonies of Greece to settle at Athens. By the theory of minute constituents of things, and his emphasis on mechanical processes in the formation of order, he paved the way for the atomic theory. However, his enunciation of the order that comes from an intelligent mind suggested the theory that nature is the work of design.

56 Atomist School of Pluralists Leucippus
約與Empedocles、Anaxagoras同時,Abdera Nothing happens at random (maten), but everything from reason (ek logou) and by necessity.

57 Atomist School of Pluralists Democritus
BC Abdera in Thrace Atoma 'he prefers to discover a causality rather than become a king of Persia'.

58 兩種知識 Of knowledge there are two forms, one legitimate, one bastard. To the bastard belong all this group: sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch. The other is legitimate and separate from that. When the bastard can no longer see any smaller, or hear, or smell, or taste, or perceive by touch, but finer matters have to be examined, then comes the legitimate, since it has a finer organ of perception.” (Fr. 11 Sextus, Adv. Math. VII, 138). But we in actuality grasp nothing for certain, but what shifts in accordance with the condition of the body and of the things (atoms) which enter it and press upon it. (Fr. 9 Sextus Adv. Math. VII 136).

59 感覺 different tastes were a result of differently shaped atoms in contact with the tongue. Smells and sounds could be explained similarly. Vision works by the eye receiving "images" or "effluences" of bodies that are emanated. Sweet exists by convention, bitter by convention, color by convention; but in reality atoms and the void alone exist. senses could not provide a direct or certain knowledge of the world. In his words, "It is necessary to realize that by this principle man is cut off from the real."

60 靈魂 Though intelligence is allowed to explain the organization of the world, according to Democritus, he does give place for the existence of a soul, which he contends is composed of exceedingly fine and spherical atoma. He holds that, "spherical atoma move because it is their nature never to be still, and that as they move they draw the whole body along with them, and set it in motion." In this way, he viewed soul-atoma as being similar to fire-atoma: small, spherical, capable of penetrating solid bodies and good examples of spontaneous motion.

61 Sophists Kleisthenes之改革(509-507):取消自然關係與財產身份,人人平等、允許平民任官
波斯戰爭後Pericles之黃金時代( ):知識突進、經濟繁榮、社會分裂、爭訟增加 販售知識、以便買者獲利(法庭勝訴、議場雄辯…) 智者、「吹毛求疵者」

62 古代 vs.「啟蒙」 1. 法律是合法的、應被遵守的 2. 服從法律有利、不服從有害。
憲法常變、法律權威不再。民主問:法律之合法性何在?是否有普遍適用的法律規範?→與自然哲學搭上線 Sophist: 法律:利益創造法律、法律保障利益。 道德:符合利益則守法,否則則否。。

63 Sophist之始: Protagoras
BC 因瀆神被逐出ATHEN Man is the measure of all things

64 Man is the measure of all things: of things which are, that they are, and of things which are not, that they are not (物之是其所是、非其所非,率以個人為衡 ) “Man”:單數個人 Concerning the gods, I have no means of knowing whether they exist or not or of what sort they may be, because of the obscurity of the subject, and the brevity of human life

65 Gorgias

66 Nihilistic arguments Nothing exists;
Even if something exists, nothing can be known about it; and Even if something can be known about it, knowledge about it can't be communicated to others. der erste, dass nichts ist; der zweite, dass, auch wenn ist, es dem Menschen nicht erfassbar ist, und drittens, dass, auch wenn es erfassbar ist, nicht dem anderen mitteilbar und erklärbar ist.

67 Socrates BC Sophist or philosopher virtue is Knowledge

68 Xenopon & Plato之記載 凱勒豐(Chaerephon)在Delphi的神諭處詢問是否有人比蘇格拉底更聰明;神諭處的回答是否定的。蘇格拉底解釋:這個答案是另一個謎題——要他開始尋找比他更聰明的人。他質問雅典的人們有關他們對於至善、美麗、和美德的看法,發現他們其實根本一無所知,但卻以為他們知道的很多,蘇格拉底於是總結道:他比其他人聰明的地方僅只在於他體認到他什麼也不知道(he was wise only insofar as "that what I don't know, I don't think I know." )。

69 蘇格拉底的智慧使得當時那些被他質疑愚蠢的雅典政治人物轉而對付他,導致了這場不敬神的審判。
蘇格拉底最後被判有罪,並被判處死刑。蘇格拉底拒絕了他的學生們試圖安排他逃跑的計畫,飲下毒菫汁而死。依據《婓多篇》記載,蘇格拉底死時相當平靜,堅忍地接受了他的判決。 依據色諾芬和柏拉圖的記載,蘇格拉底原本有機會逃跑,他的學生們已經準備好賄賂監獄守衛,在逃跑後蘇格拉底將會逃離雅典。蘇格拉底拒絕逃跑的原因是因為他了解到他必須遵守這個城邦的法律,服從這個城邦的公民和法官、以及陪審團所審判的結果。否則他便會違反他與這個城邦的「契約」,而這樣做是違背了蘇格拉底所提倡的原則的。

70 Methode:Dialectics、問定義。
助產士(μαῖα) 之說 有道德觀念藏人胸中。Virtue is knowledge 知道,即能做事更完善。 估量人的行為,有客觀標準→需定義,由「洞見」提供。各行各業需對對象瞭解,故公民生活亦應瞭解其對象:自己。 德性:對「適合自己目的」的東西之認識;有德性的人:按自己認識行事的人,無人明知故犯,除非認識錯誤。

71 弟子 Aristippus of Cyrene(非洲、東利比亞)早年師Protagras,快樂主義(Hedonism)。I own, I’m not owned. 繼者:Theodorus, Annikeris, Hegesias, Euemerus__伊壁鳩魯派 Antistenes of Athen, 創Cynic school (在Kynosarges體育館講學故),弟子Diogenes of Sinope最有名。為德性而德性,拒絕快樂、享受__回到自然狀態(古代盧梭)__斯多葛派。。 Euclid of Megara。Socrtaes + Eleatic school (Parmenides)。「德」為「唯一存在」。又承Zeno辯論術。扯謊者自承說謊、一粒穀不成堆。


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