Presentation on theme: "Absolute Monarchs in Europe,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500-1800 Spain’s Empire and European AbsolutismFrance’s Ultimate MonarchRussian Czars Increase Power
2 Characteristics of the New Monarchies They offered the institution of monarchy as a guarantee of law and order.They proclaimed that hereditary monarchy was the legitimate form of public power all should accept this without resistance.They enlisted the support of the middle class in the towns tired of the local power of feudal nobles.They would have to get their monarchies sufficiently organized & their finances into reliable order.
3 Characteristics of the New Monarchies They would break down the mass of feudal, inherited, customary, or “common” law in which the rights of the feudal classes were entrenched.The kings would MAKE law, enact it by his own authority, regardless of previous custom or historic liberties What pleases the prince has the force of law!LET PAINT EVERYHOUSE RED
4 The Theory of Absolutism These rulers wanted to be absolute monarchs, kings or queens who believed that all power within their state’s boundaries rested in their hands.Their goal was to control every aspect of society. Absolute monarchs believed in divine right, the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God’s representative on earth. An absolute monarch answered only to God, not to his or her subjects.
5 Spain’s Empire Philip II of Spain 1527 – 1598 Inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American coloniesDuring a time of religious and economic instability, Philip II ruled with a strong handHe seized the Portuguese kingdomGained an estimated 339,000 pounds of gold from American Mines
6 Spain’s Empire Philip II – Defender of Catholicism Europe was facing religious wars due to the Reformation when Philip took powerSpanish ArtEl Greco’s techniques showed the deep Catholic faith of SpainDon Quixote published in 1605 is often called the birth of the modern European novel
7 Spain’s Empire Problems Weaken the Spanish Empire Inflation and Taxes Financing of wars Philip had to declare the Spanish State bankrupt three timesThe Dutch Revolt – Protestant mobs swept through Catholic churches destroying paintings and statues1579 – The United Provinces of the Netherlands declared their independence
8 France’s Ultimate Monarch After a century of war and riots, France was ruled by Louis XIV, the most powerful monarch of his time.Conflicts between Catholics and Huguenots – French ProtestantsHuguenots and Catholics fought eight religious wars between 1562 and 1598
9 France’s Ultimate Monarch Louis XIV Rules AbsolutelyIn Louis’s view, he and the state were one and the same.Louis XIV took control in 1661 when he was 23 years oldLouis weakened the power of the nobles by excluding them from his councils
10 France’s Ultimate Monarch Economic GrowthLouis’s minister of finance was Jean Baptiste Colbert who believed in the theory of mercantilism: the idea that nations should protect their home industries and export more than they import
11 France’s Ultimate Monarch Louis Grand StyleThe Palace at Versailles15,000 acres of gardens1,400 fountainsAbout 2,000 rooms36,000 laborers and 6,000 horses worked on the palace
12 France’s Ultimate Monarch Louis fights disastrous warsFrance had been weakened by constant warfare and poor harvests.Louis raised the taxes to finance his warsWar of the Spanish SuccessionCountries joined together to stop France and Spain – England, Austria, the Dutch republic, Portugal, and several German and Italian statesLouis realized that his wars had ruined France and died in 1715 regretting what he had brought upon his people
13 Russian Czars Increase Power Peter the Great made many changes in Russia to try to make it more like western EuropeA great reformer he took the throne in 1696Peter the Great stood 6 feet 8 inches tall
14 Russian Czars Increase Power Peter was 24 years old when he became sole ruler of Russia. In l697, just one year later, he embarked on the “Grand Embassy,” a long visit to western Europe. Peter’s goal was to learn about European customs and industrial techniques. With him were 200 servants and 55 boyars. Never before had a czar traveled among Western “heretics.”
15 Russian Czars Increase Power Peter’s goal of westernization, of using western Europe as a model for change, was not an end in itself. Peter saw it as a way to make Russia stronger.Introduced potatoesStarted first Russian newspaperRaised women’s status by having them attend social gatheringsA new capitol – St. Petersburg