Whenever you read an argument, see an ad or commercial, you must ask yourself: ”Is this persuasive? What are they trying to get me to think or do?” http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=etrade+baby+commer cials+ground+to+crib&view=detail&mid=0AF4C62077DE1E5B 17650AF4C62077DE1E5B1765&first=0
Again, three methods of persuasion are… ethos pathos logos
ETHOS -- a person’s credibility with a given audience. It can mean sincerity, authority, expertise, faithfulness, or any adjective that describes someone you can trust to do the right thing. Ethos appeals to your sense of values and beliefs.
Ethos: Ethos is related to the English word “ethics” and refers to the trustworthiness of the speaker/writer. When we believe that the speaker does not intend to do us harm, we are more willing to listen to what s/he has to say. When a judge comments on legal precedent, audiences listen because it is the job of a judge to know the nature of past legal cases.
Example George Foreman and his Grilling Machine Boxer Fitness Preacher, too!
What is “the call to action”? http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=YSbCnWe6e1o&nor edirect=1 A commercial which emphasizes the trustworthiness, patriotism and loyalty of a certain group you should be a part of….
Apply it to The Crucible: p. 1106 – Rev. Hale : A reverend using his position of authority to persuade: “No, no. Now let me instruct you. We cannot look to superstition in this, The Devil is precise; the marks of his presence are definite as stone, and I must tell you all that I shall not proceed unless you are prepared to believe me if I should find no bruise of hell upon her.”
Pathos appeals rely on emotions and feelings to persuade the audience They are often direct, simple, and very powerful
Pathos: Pathos is related to the words pathetic, sympathy and empathy. Whenever you accept a claim based on how it makes you feel without fully analyzing the rationale behind the claim, you are acting on pathos- emotions: love, fear, patriotism, guilt, hate, joy etc.
Pathos: Moving you to ACTION Appeals to pathos touch an emotional nerve and often compel people to not only listen, but to also take the next step and act in the world.
Where do you notice PATHOS appeals? “America's older citizens have rightly been called the "greatest generation." It is morally unacceptable that the people that built this country -- our senior citizens -- should suffer hunger in a land of plenty, which they helped to create.” -from America’s Second Harvest program
What is the “call to action” which is implied? “America's older citizens have rightly been called the "greatest generation." It is morally unacceptable that the people that built this country -- our senior citizens -- should suffer hunger in a land of plenty, which they helped to create.” -from America’s Second Harvest program
What is “the call to action”? http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=9gspElv1yv c http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=9gspElv1yv c A commercial which, hands down, is probably the best “pathos” appeal out there to date:
Apply it to The Crucible: p. 1099 Abigail to John Proctor A young woman tries to convince the man she loves that he loves her still: “ I look for John Proctor that took me from my sleep and put knowledge in my heart!...And now you bid me tear the light out of my eyes? I will not, I cannot! You loved me, John Proctor, and whatever sin it is, you love me yet! John, pity me, pity me!”
LOGOS: Appeals rely on the audience’s intelligence to persuade them. The more educated the audience, the more skeptical they are of emotional arguments --- they are more receptive to logos appeals
Logos: The Greek word logos is the basis for the English word “logic.” Refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect—this looks and sounds like a "logical argument." Everyday arguments rely heavily on ethos and pathos, but academic arguments rely more on logos: there will be logical chains of reasoning supporting all claims.
Where do you see a LOGOS appeal? NASA sees its mission to explore Mars as an endeavor to seek out the possibility of life on that planet. Knowing if water was on Mars is the first step in this research.
LOGOS: NASA sees its mission to explore Mars as an endeavor to seek out the possibility of life on that planet. Knowing if water was on Mars is the first step in this research.
Where do you notice PATHOS and LOGOS appeals? The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge provides a safe refuge for 180 species of migratory birds, serves as a birthing ground for one of the hemisphere's largest caribou herds and has been home to the Gwinch'in people for a thousand generations. Ninety-five percent (95%) of Alaska's North Slope is already available to Big Oil, but these companies want it all.
What is “the call to action”? This company’s commercials use common sense appeal and the logic of saving money: http://www.bing.com/vide os/search?q=allstate+com mercials+teenage+racoon &view=detail&mid=433CA 8CF0B34BD78A1A6433CA 8CF0B34BD78A1A6&first= 0
Apply it to The Crucible: p. 1110 Rev. Hale to Tituba Rev. Hale attempts to persuade Tituba with calm, religious logic: “You are God’s instrument put in our hands to discover the Devil’s agent among us. You are selected, Tituba, you are chosen to help us cleanse our village. So speak utterly, Tituba, turn your back on him and face God—face God, Tituba and God will protect you.”
Example of ? Rational choice theory in political science has made much of the fact that it is seemingly irrational to vote in a large-scale election. This is because the probability that your single vote will determine the outcome is generally very close to zero, while the act of voting entails some small but real costs. Even in a close election like Florida in 2000, an individual’s vote would really “count” only if the margin of victory was exactly one vote. 3
Example of ??? Hillary Clinton used a moment of brilliantly staged emotion to win the New Hampshire Democratic primary.... As she answered questions in a diner on the morning before the election, Mrs. Clinton's voice began to waver and crack when she said: “It's not easy.... This is very personal for me.”
Example of? Call to action? http://www.myspace.c om/video/vid/30006522 http://www.myspace.c om/video/vid/30006522
Examples of ??? "If, in my low moments, in word, deed or attitude, through some error of temper, taste, or tone, I have caused anyone discomfort, created pain, or revived someone's fears, that was not my truest self. If there were occasions when my grape turned into a raisin and my joy bell lost its resonance, please forgive me. Charge it to my head and not to my heart. My head--so limited in its finitude; my heart, which is boundless in its love for the human family. I am not a perfect servant. I am a public servant doing my best against the odds." (Jesse Jackson, Democratic National Convention Keynote Address, 1984)