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SOCIAL PROTECTION STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK

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Presentation on theme: "SOCIAL PROTECTION STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK"— Presentation transcript:

1 SOCIAL PROTECTION STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK
18 May 2012

2 UNICEF work on social protection
Strong presence on the ground - UNICEF is engaged in more than 124 social protection interventions in 93 countries Leaders in child-sensitive social protection Experience in low income and fragile settings

3 UNICEF work on social protection
Technical assistance in the design and implementation of SP programmes/systems Costing of and identifying fiscal space to expand investments in social protection Promoting knowledge exchange and forging alliances in social protection International advocacy to promote social protection floors Caveat

4 Social Protection Strategic Framework
Key Messages Social protection strengthens resilience, accelerates equity, human and economic development UNICEF supports Progressive Realization of Universal Coverage Social protection can be affordable and sustainably financed UNICEF promotes integrated social protection systems Social, as well as economic, vulnerabilities need to be addressed by social protection Starting point for a collaborative agenda on joint learning and action

5 Framework Outline The Case for Social Protection and Children
Increased relevance, child-sensitive social protection, returns to investment in children and social protection UNICEF’s Approach and Principles Definition, components, principles (inclusive social protection; progressive realization and national ownership, sustainability and context specificity) Integrated social protection systems Multi-sector approach (social protection and equitable sector outcomes) and systems; systems approach (e.g.: institutional arrangements, M&E, participation) Key Policy Issues and Challenges Financing, politics, sequencing and prioritization, institutional capacity Inclusive Social Protection Dimensions of exclusion, inclusive instruments and design Emerging issues Humanitarian action, urbanization, migration and adolescence and youth The Road Ahead Collaborative Agenda for Action, engaging partners, UNICEF’s contribution Case studies and illustrations from different regions Evidence on impacts and overview of the state of existing evidence

6 The Case for Social Protection and Children
UNICEF Social Protection Work an overview Show and Tell on Social Protection Bonn, 2011 The Case for Social Protection and Children See Framework’s Chapter I:

7 Increased relevance in current context
Persistent inequality and exclusion Inequality across regions and within countries, uneven progress in MGDs Increasing economic risks and instability Lack of employment, high food prices, austerity measures and instability disproportionately affect those already vulnerable, e.g. women, youth and children Sustainable development goals and climate change Poor and marginalized communities and children, particularly vulnerable to climate change Population trends and demographic changes Youth bulge, strains in employment, migration and urbanization patterns, changing family and support structures See Framework’s Chapter I:

8 Current Context: Rising Unemployment and Food Prices
Source: Ortiz, Chai and Cummins 2012: Escalating Food Prices,(update), UNICEF.

9 First phase of the Global Crisis (2008-09):
Expansion of Social Protection (25% Fiscal Stimulus Plans)

10 Second phase of the Global Crisis (2010- ): Austerity in a Context of Rising Unemployment and Food Prices Contraction of public expenditures in 94 developing countries in 2012; austerity measures considered: Wage bill cuts/caps – including salaries of teachers, health, social workers Eliminating subsidies, such as food subsidies Social protection: Targeting (reducing coverage) and rationalizing/reducing benefits At a time when families most in need - social protection should be scaled-up G20 – Building social protection floors IMF/World Bank 2012 Development Committee Communique: Urgency to build safety nets during crisis and prosperity Income Group Indicator (A) Change in Spending (year on year, in % of GDP) (B) Growth of Real Spending (year on year, as a %) 2010 2011 2012 2013 Developing (countries 130) Overall avg. change -0.6 0.2 -1.0 -0.7 5.6 6.4 1.7 2.9 Avg. contraction -2.7 -1.8 -1.2 -6.7 -5.0 -6.2 -3.3 # of countries contracting 68 62 94 92 32 36 40 26 High Income countries (49) 1.8 1.6 0.6 -1.6 -2.0 -4.4 -4.7 -2.5 -3.0 38 37 39 18 20 14

11 Child-Sensitive Social Protection:
Helping all children realize their full potential Social protection and children’s rights Rights to social protection recognized in international instruments Multidimensional nature of children’s vulnerabilities Children share the risks and vulnerabilities of their families and communities, but also have specific (age and gender) vulnerabilities that need to be considered. Equity Social protection addresses some of the underlying social and economic barriers to children’s well-being Helps level the playing field, accelerating progress particularly for vulnerable and excluded populations Intergenerational approach Child-sensitive does not mean child-exclusive Addressing vulnerabilities of caregivers, households and communities also important RATIONALE for social protection and Children Universal Declaration on Human Right (Eg: Article 25) The Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted in 1989, has been signed by 194 countries, including all but two UN members. (Eg: Article, 26, and others)

12 Children’s rights to social protection
Children have internationally recognized rights to social security, an adequate standard of living, health, education, etc. - as inscribed in international legal instruments: Convention Rights of the Child Article 26 “States Parties shall recognize for every child the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realization of rights in accordance with their national law.” Article 27 “States Parties recognize the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child's physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development. “States Parties, in accordance with national conditions and within their means, shall take appropriate measures to assist parents and others responsible for the child to implement this right and shall in case of need provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing.” Supported by other articles: 18, 19, 24, 28 and 32 193 State Parties to the Convention as of 2012. Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Articles 25 and 26 ILO Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention 102 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights – Articles 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 See Framework’s Chapter I:

13 Investing in children now, reaping long-term returns
Importance of Investing in Children NOW: Children 30% world population Childhood is critical window of opportunity Physical, cognitive and psychological development has lifetime consequences The positive impacts of social protection on children’s nutrition, health, education and protection can lead to healthy and productive adulthood High costs of inaction Broader positive economic impacts At household level, protects against shocks and supports productive investments and labour market participation Multiplier and counter-cyclical effects in local economies

14 UNICEF’s Approach and Principles
UNICEF Social Protection Work an overview Show and Tell on Social Protection Bonn, 2011 UNICEF’s Approach and Principles See Framework’s Chapter II:

15 Definition UNICEF understands social protection as:
Key elements of definition: Poverty and deprivation are a multi-dimensional and dynamic reality. Vulnerability entails both exposure to risk and the capacity to respond and cope. Both economic and social vulnerabilities are important and often intertwined. Vulnerabilities are shaped by underlying structural social, political and economic factors. “a set of public and private policies and programmes aimed at preventing, reducing and eliminating economic and social vulnerabilities to poverty and deprivation” See Framework’s Chapter II:

16 Programmes to access services
Social protection components and examples Cash transfers (including pensions, child benefits, poverty-targeted, seasonal) Food transfers Nutritional supplementation; Provision of ARVs Public works Birth registration User fee abolition Health insurance Exemptions, vouchers, subsidies Specialized services to ensure equitable access for all Family support services Home-based care Accessible Childcare services Minimum and equal pay legislation Employment guarantee schemes Maternity and paternity leave Removal of discriminatory legislation or policies affecting service provision/access or employment Inheritance rights Social Transfers Programmes to access services Support and care Social Protection components where UNICEF concentrates its work BROAD set of instruments Social Transfers: Predictable direct transfers to individuals or households to protect them from the impacts of shocks and support the accumulation of human, productive and financial assets programmes to ensure access to services: Social protection interventions that reduce the financial and social barriers households face when accessing social services Social support and care services: Human resource-intensive services that help identify and reduce vulnerability and exclusion, particularly at the child and household level Legislation and Policy Reform: Changes to policies/legislation in order to remove inequalities in access to services or livelihoods/economic opportunities, there by helping to address issues of discrimination and exclusion See Framework’s chapter III: Legislation

17 Key Principles Progressive realization of universal access to social protection: UNICEF supports countries to identify and progressively build the mix of policies and programmes most conducive to the ultimate goal of achieving universality, while recognizing countries’ different capacities and contexts. National systems and context specificity: UNICEF supports nationally owned and led systems. There is no ‘one size fits all’ blueprint for social protection policies; the most effective and appropriate mix of programmes and financing strategies must be identified in each context Inclusive social protection: Dimensions of exclusion such as gender, ethnicity, HIV status, geographic location, and disability status fundamentally shape the vulnerabilities of children and their families.  UNICEF promotes inclusive social protection that is responsive to the different dimensions of exclusion and their manifestations IF ONLY using this slide- suggestion to focus more on first principle : UNICEF supports the goal of universal coverage: all people should be covered by appropriate and effective social protection mechanisms. An universal approach has the potential to: reduce exclusion errors foster social solidarity reduce stigma associated with some targeting methods Progressive realization UNICEF recognizes the challenges in providing universal coverage: resource and capacity constraints, state of development of social protection structures Supports countries in identifying and building the most appropriate approach or mix of interventions that will be most conducive to the ultimate goal of universal coverage See Framework’s Chapter II:

18 Progressive realization of universal coverage
UNICEF supports the goal of universal coverage: all people should be covered by appropriate and effective social protection mechanisms. An universal approach has the potential to: reduce exclusion errors foster social solidarity reduce stigma associated with some targeting methods Progressive realization UNICEF recognizes the challenges in providing universal coverage: resource and capacity constraints, state of development of social protection structures Supports countries in identifying and building the most appropriate approach or mix of interventions that will be most conducive to the ultimate goal of universal coverage See Framework’s Chapter II:

19 National systems and leadership
UNICEF supports nationally-owned and led systems Includes supporting national leadership in the development of long-term financing strategies No ‘one size fits all’ Identification of the most effective and appropriate mix of interventions given context-specific vulnerabilities, national priorities, and capacity. See Framework’s Chapter II:

20 Inclusive social protection
Inclusive SP is responsive to different dimensions of exclusion Social dimensions of vulnerability such as gender, ethnicity, HIV status, geographic location and disability status fundamentally shape exposure to risk and resilience  barriers to secure livelihoods and to accessing essential social services Looks at shared causes of exclusion across different groups, while considering the added vulnerabilities associated with specific dimensions Inclusive SP enhances inclusive and equitable outcomes through: Instruments that explicitly promote social inclusion and equity, e.g. parental leave, anti-discrimination policies Design and implementation that is sensitive to the added vulnerabilities that stem from social exclusion See Framework’s Chapter VI:

21 Inclusive social protection: Instruments
Examples of instruments that specifically address social exclusion: Social protection instrument Social inclusion Accessible childcare services Interventions that acknowledge uneven access and barriers to entry into the labour market: e.g., subsidies for childcare centres; provide caregivers with capacity to work; even the playing field and eliminate trade-offs in potential job options for women (part-time, low pay vs. flexibility) Maternity and paternity leave Parents are able to take care of children without losing earnings Inheritance rights Women and girls are able to use family assets and resources, even if male head of household is not present (key for widows and orphans in conflict and emergency settings) Anti-discrimination policies/ quotas To ensure job opportunities for disabled youth; legal reforms and frameworks that recognize and foster intercultural practices in health, nutrition, education and other relevant sectors; legislation reform to prevent discrimination against children with disabilities in terms of education and health services Family care and support Economic and social support to family members and caregivers: support early identification, inclusion into community and interaction with peers, support families to help the development of children Socio economic and legal framework: countries’ (or region’s) political context, as well as on existing legal frameworks.; what is politically, as well as financially feasible in each context.; and Expected results: What are the goals and specific objectives? Is there a comprehensive framework/policy that clearly defines country’s approach to social protection? Examples: LICS: UNICEF’s can play an important role in (i) strengthening national, regional and local capacity for design, implementation and monitoring; (ii) exploring potential financing options for social protection, giving priority to reduction of initial costs, sustainability and national ownership; (iii) promoting south-south collaboration to enhance expertise and availability of technical tools, including dissemination of evaluations and assessments of interventions in similar settings; (iv) linking social protection with wider development objectives; (v) exploring targeting and design options to address fiscal constraints, while preventing errors and exclusion of most needed sectors. MICS: eg: expansion to urban setttings – e.g.: linkages between contributory systems and social assistance mechanisms; defining exit and graduation strategies; addressing inclusion and exclusion errors in coverage(ii) assess the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of interventions, particularly to address inequality and/or existing internal disparities, reviewing potential re-allocation of resources or re-formulation of programmes and policies; (iii) strengthen linkages between access and quality of services; (iv) promote exchange of experiences with other countries in similar settings, as well as promoting south-south learning. Fragility: In this context, particular attention should be given to: (i) understanding and assessing the dynamics of poverty and exclusion in fragile states in order to design the most appropriate approach and interventions; (ii) establishing and strengthening partnerships with key actors- e.g. NGOs – to fill the gaps of weak government capacity; (iii) identifying potential effects of social protection interventions on governance and enhancement of state’s legitimacy, while linking interventions to wider policy processes; (iv) prioritize capacity building, identifying gaps in delivery of services (eg: decentralization processes; strengthening community-based responses; strengthening informal systems; external and internal financing options). See Framework’s Chapter VI:

22 Inclusive implementation
Inclusive social protection: Design, implementation and evaluation Examples of inclusive design, implementation and evaluation in social protection programmes: Interventions Gender Ethnicity Disability Inclusive design Facilitating childcare services and/or breastfeeding practices to encourage participation of women in public work programmes Considering potentially remote geographic location of vulnerable indigenous communities in the design of delivery mechanisms and/or targeting Considering adjusting benefit size to include added costs associated with disability treatment and care Inclusive implementation Complementary activities: for ex., programmes facilitating not only access to health care to pregnant adolescents and women but also preventive information for at-risk girls Family support to beneficiaries to enhance impact of programmes Complementary activities: for ex., outreach and referral services to allow children and families to access benefits and/or specialized services. Inclusive evaluation - Assessing outcomes such as intra-household impacts, participation, and empowerment Promoting the integration of ethnic-disaggregated data in national census and/or socio-economic surveys Integrating disaggregated data into national surveys and programme evaluations to measure whether people with disabilities and their families are being included (or excluded) from benefits and services. Socio economic and legal framework: countries’ (or region’s) political context, as well as on existing legal frameworks.; what is politically, as well as financially feasible in each context.; and Expected results: What are the goals and specific objectives? Is there a comprehensive framework/policy that clearly defines country’s approach to social protection? Examples: LICS: UNICEF’s can play an important role in (i) strengthening national, regional and local capacity for design, implementation and monitoring; (ii) exploring potential financing options for social protection, giving priority to reduction of initial costs, sustainability and national ownership; (iii) promoting south-south collaboration to enhance expertise and availability of technical tools, including dissemination of evaluations and assessments of interventions in similar settings; (iv) linking social protection with wider development objectives; (v) exploring targeting and design options to address fiscal constraints, while preventing errors and exclusion of most needed sectors. MICS: eg: expansion to urban setttings – e.g.: linkages between contributory systems and social assistance mechanisms; defining exit and graduation strategies; addressing inclusion and exclusion errors in coverage(ii) assess the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of interventions, particularly to address inequality and/or existing internal disparities, reviewing potential re-allocation of resources or re-formulation of programmes and policies; (iii) strengthen linkages between access and quality of services; (iv) promote exchange of experiences with other countries in similar settings, as well as promoting south-south learning. Fragility: In this context, particular attention should be given to: (i) understanding and assessing the dynamics of poverty and exclusion in fragile states in order to design the most appropriate approach and interventions; (ii) establishing and strengthening partnerships with key actors- e.g. NGOs – to fill the gaps of weak government capacity; (iii) identifying potential effects of social protection interventions on governance and enhancement of state’s legitimacy, while linking interventions to wider policy processes; (iv) prioritize capacity building, identifying gaps in delivery of services (eg: decentralization processes; strengthening community-based responses; strengthening informal systems; external and internal financing options). See Framework’s Chapter VI:

23 UNICEF part of Social Protection Floor Initiative
A basic set of social protection transfers and services for: Children Older persons Persons with disabilities Unemployed ... All countries have some form of social security but few provide a basic social floor for all See: Supported by the G20 Lead UN agencies: ILO and WHO. Participating UN-system agencies - FAO, OHCHR, UN Regional Commissions, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNDESA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNICEF, UNHABITAT, UNHCR, UNODC, UNRWA, WFP. Participating Civil Society: Helpage, ICSW…

24 Key Policy Issues and Challenges
See Framework’s Chapter V:

25 Key policy issues challenges: Financing
Social protection can be affordable and sustainably financed even in poor countries Spending on SP is an investment, as it can result in positive immediate and long-term economic and social return The cost of NOT expanding SP should also be considered Affordability and financing are not only technical questions but also political choices Financing options available include: Re-allocating current public expenditures Increasing tax revenues Using fiscal and central bank foreign exchange reserves Borrowing or restructuring existing debt Adopting more accommodating macroeconomic framework International aid See Framework’s Chapter V:

26 Is It Affordable? Cost of a Universal Child Benefit in 57 countries, % GDP
Source: UNICEF 2010 Social Protection – Accelerating the MDGs with Equity

27 Key policy issues and challenges
Costing – Online SPF tool to start discussions: Politics of Social Protection Affect design, implementation and evaluation of programmes but also which interventions are conceived as feasible in the first place Sequencing and Prioritization Particular pathway chosen is context-specific UNICEF supports the implementation of the SPF as an initial step Institutional Capacity UNICEF provides support to countries and helps keep SP from becoming a strain on existing institutions SPF Costing Tool: Users can estimate costs for the following cash transfers: child benefits, old-age pensions, disability benefits, orphan benefits, education stipends, birth lump-sum benefits, youth labour market programmes, and unemployment programmes Social protection systems can be sustainably financed. Affordability and financing are not only technical questions but also political choices. The Framework shows how (i) investment in social protection and children can result in positive immediate and long-term economic and social returns; and (ii) fiscal space for social protection exists even in very poor countries. The relevant question is where and how resources should be spent to maximum benefit and what long-term financing strategies are feasible for progressive expansion of coverage. Issues to consider: cost-benefit analyses of social protection programmes vis-à-vis other policy options and short-term effects of social protection as well as its indirect and long-term impacts. Domestic and international financing options available to countries include raising domestic tax revenues, reallocating public expenditure, and using international assistance. The political, administrative and fiscal feasibility and relevance of different financing options will vary according to a country’s context. See Framework’s Chapter V:

28 Implementation Debates
Conditionality Both conditional and unconditional transfers have shown impact The particular role and attribution of impact to conditionality remains an open debate Several issues to consider: Context-specificity and appropriateness of conditionality Additional cost of conditionality vs. added-value Additional capacity requirements Paternalism UNICEF has been mostly involved in supporting unconditional programmes Graduation and Exit Strategies Some groups require permanent assistance (eg orphans) Some groups affected by short-term shocks may require temporary assistance. Resilience over time is the goal so implementers must go beyond usage of income/asset threshold to assess graduation. Consider: Social vulnerabilities Enabling external factors Dynamic movement in and out of poverty See Framework’s Chapter V:

29 Integrated Social Protection Systems: Enhancing Equity for Children
UNICEF Social Protection Work an overview Show and Tell on Social Protection Bonn, 2011 Integrated Social Protection Systems: Enhancing Equity for Children See Framework’s Chapter IV:

30 Integrated social protection systems
Overall approach: Integrated social protection systems Highly effective for addressing multiple and compounding vulnerabilities faced by children and families Address both social and economic vulnerabilities Provide a comprehensive set of interventions Go beyond risk management interventions and safety nets: address structural as well as shock-related vulnerabilities Facilitate a multi-sector approach and coordination In order to be effective and sustainable, SP systems also need to: Coordinate with appropriate supply-side investments Frame social protection strategies within a broader set of social and economic policies that promote human development and growth See Framework’s Chapter IV:

31 Integrated social protection systems
‘Multi-sector’ approach ‘Systems’ approach Integrated Social protection Systems See Framework’s Chapter IV:

32 Systems approach Institutions and mechanisms necessary to effectively address multiple vulnerabilities in an integrated manner Components/building blocks: Vulnerability and poverty assessments for selection of appropriate design Institutional frameworks : national policy/strategies that clearly define and delineate the country’s/region’s approach to SP Institutional arrangements, for providing strategic guidance, overseeing implementation, and facilitating multi-sector coordination Structures and incentives to facilitate horizontal and vertical coordination (eg: Common targeting systems; Developing regional and local implementation models of social protection) Monitoring and evaluation (M&E plan, MIS, etc) Participation and accountability See Framework’s Chapter IV: Inter-ministerial high level committee to provide strategic guidance and define intervention priorities; Ministry /government agency with a specific mandate and/or technical expertise on particular groups or thematic approach Specialized agency/unit under planning department Monitoring and evaluation: The Framework discusses some key elements to consider in developing and strengthening an M&E system, including: Identification of the most effective design, responsive to the objectives of the system or programme Definition of an M&E plan in the early stages of design that outlines the particular areas to be monitored and/or assessed, the information needed, the best way to collect it, and how to involve strategic stakeholders, etc. Monitoring Information Systems (MIS): key component of M&E, providing tools to enhance registry, eligibility processes, as well as monitoring outputs and outcomes Institutionalization of evaluation for social programmes Learning within and across countries and regions; experience and documentation exchange

33 Institutional frameworks and mechanisms
Systems approach: Institutional frameworks and mechanisms An effective institutional design is crucial to the successful implementation of a social protection system. Elements to consider (examples): Comprehensive framework/policy that clearly defines and delineates the country’s/region’s approach to SP Appropriate structures for providing strategic guidance, overseeing implementation, and facilitating multi-sector coordination. Ex: Inter-ministerial high level committee to provide strategic guidance and define intervention priorities; Ministry /government agency with a specific mandate and/or technical expertise on particular groups or thematic approach Specialized agency/unit under planning department Structures and incentives to facilitate horizontal and vertical coordination. Ex: Common targeting systems Developing regional and local implementation models of social protection See Framework’s Chapter IV:

34 Monitoring and Evaluation
Systems approach: Monitoring and Evaluation UNICEF acknowledges the importance of M&E systems, as well the challenges faced by many countries in building them effectively. The Framework discusses some key elements to consider in developing and strengthening an M&E system, including: Identification of the most effective design, responsive to the objectives of the system or programme Definition of an M&E plan in the early stages of design that outlines the particular areas to be monitored and/or assessed, the information needed, the best way to collect it, and how to involve strategic stakeholders, etc. Monitoring Information Systems (MIS): key component of M&E, providing tools to enhance registry, eligibility processes, as well as monitoring outputs and outcomes Institutionalization of evaluation for social programmes Learning within and across countries and regions; experience and documentation exchange See Framework’s Chapter IV:

35 Participation and Accountability
Systems approach: Participation and Accountability SP policies and their redistribution mechanisms need to be justified and validated by citizens – beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. Participation enhances the relevance, appropriateness, ownership, and effective implementation of programmes. Design Participation when defining polices and strategies, identifying vulnerabilities and needs Implementation Community case workers, civil society organisations can support beneficiaries to increase their knowledge of programmes’ operations and processes and their capacity to claim rights to SP Accountability and Monitoring What appeals processes are in place? Can women and children access these in practice, and are their appeals addressed? Civil society groups can play an important role in monitoring and providing feedback on the effective delivery of interventions, as well as in ensuring transparency See Framework’s Chapter IV:

36 Children survive, develop and thrive
Multi-sector approach Identifies and maximizes linkages between SP and sectors (Child protection, HIV/AIDS, early childhood development, education, health and nutrition, water and sanitation, etc.) Children survive, develop and thrive Social Inclusion Equitable access to services Equitable access to goods/resources Behavior patterns/change Supply of services Enabling factors Direct impact: Social protection can contribute to remove barriers – social and economic – to access and use of services and essential goods/resources Indirect impact: Social protection can foster improvements in the supply of quality, pertinent services as well as contribute to changes in behaviour See Framework’s Chapter IV: Social Protection Direct impact: Contributes to removing barriers to access Indirect impact: Fosters improvements in supply and quality of services; contributes to behaviour change

37 Multi-sector approach: Child Protection
Programmatic linkages between SP and Child Protection: Some child protection mechanisms and interventions can serve social protection functions – enhancing outcomes in both areas. For example: Birth registration Family support services Explicit integration and linking of child protection services with social transfers or other social protection activities may enhance the long-term impact of these interventions. SP contact points can help identify and refer vulnerable households to social welfare services Case workers Pay points (from cash transfers) Child protection services can help remove barriers to access of social protection programmes: e.g., referral services by social workers may address stigma, isolation, lack of information problems Child protection mechanisms and services can directly prevent and protect children from harmful practices. In this context, social protection can contribute to both preventive and protection functions, addressing some of the underlying risk factors of abuse, violence and exploitation while at the same time increasing families’ and communities’ resilience and capacity to respond to external stresses. Moreover, UNICEF approach to child protection has increasingly moved towards the creation and strengthening of systems to support prevention and response to risks. Social protection can play a key role in many aspects of this approach – for example, it can contribute to promoting and ensuring access to basic social services by removing financial and social barriers; enhance the capacity of caregivers in terms of financial assistance, work flexibility and protective legislation; and promote anti-discrimination legislation and policy reform linked to access of services to transform discriminatory attitudes towards vulnerable children and their families. In general terms, linking social protection and child protection systems can potentially enhance a comprehensive approach to children’s well-being, addressing economic and social vulnerabilities to poverty, abuse, neglect and exploitation. Sources: UNICEF. Social Protection Strategic Framework. New York: UNICEF, 2012 See Framework’s Chapter IV:

38 Causes/ determinants of health and nutrition-related vulnerabilities
Multi-sector approach: Health and Nutrition Causes/ determinants of health and nutrition-related vulnerabilities Social protection interventions: Child mortality/ ill health and nutrition Poverty and inequity – financial barriers to access health services Social transfers, removal of user fees, health insurance, etc. can contribute to removing financial barriers to access health-care services; help families address food insecurity; improve dietary diversity; increase expenditure on high-quality foods; and provide maternity benefits to ensure economic well-being of mothers and proper nutrition Distance and location of services Cash transfers can help cover costs of transportation as well as time and energy costs associated with health visits. Education and information Training and information sessions linked with social transfers can increase access to information on causes of illness/ preventive measures as well as effective nutrition and hygiene practices; community-based services can complement social protection interventions, providing counselling and support to vulnerable sectors. Gender and social norms When there is differentiated treatment in terms of feeding practices and care between girls and boys, policy reform as well as changes in key legislation can contribute to ensuring equal access to services for women and men. Cash payments given to women can also enhance their decision-making power, as well as increase investments in children’s health and nutrition Table presents examples of how social protection interventions can address causes/determinants of health and nutrition related vulnerabilities and thus, enhance sector outcomes. Sources: UNICEF. Social Protection Strategic Framework. New York: UNICEF, 2012 See Framework’s Chapter IV:

39 Multi-sector approach: HIV-Sensitive Social Protection
Social protection has been recognized as a essential tool to contribute to HIV outcomes: prevention, treatment and care and support (mitigation). HIV prevention Treatment for people living with HIV Care and support for people living with and affected by HIV Cash transfers Greater economic independence can reduce risk factors such as school drop out, migration for economic reasons, risky behaviours, etc. Promote adherence to treatment: cover clinic visit costs, transportation, etc. Conditionality or payment points can be linked with testing, treatment checks, etc. Transfers mitigate impact of AIDS on individuals and households In-kind Food transfers (nutritional supplements, fortified blended foods, etc.) and adherence to ART linked In-kind transfers can improve nutritional status and resilience to disease Access to affordable services Health insurance, health fees abolition, vouchers/exemptions can reduce financial barriers to preventive services, voluntary testing and counselling, information, etc. Ensuring social health protection can help households access services and deal with increased medical expenses Legislation, policy reform Child protection: ensuring the basic human rights of children (e.g., social protection to reduce child labour) Legislative measures to reduce stigma barriers and guarantee assistance for children Birth registration and alternative care to protect children whose caregivers have no/less capacity due to being affected by AIDS. Home-based case Provides psychosocial support, reduces stigma, improves pain management, etc. Sources: UNICEF. Social Protection Strategic Framework. New York: UNICEF, 2012 Social protection has been recognized as a essential tool to contribute to HIV outcomes: prevention, treatment and care and support (mitigation). Social protection can help mitigate the significant social and economic impacts of HIV on households and individuals, provided that programmes are responsive to the particular needs of people living with and affected by HIV. Social protection can help address the multiple social determinants of the epidemic – income inequalities, gender inequalities, social exclusion –and thus contribute to a reduction in new infections. Social protection can help address demand side barriers to access HIV services with potential to improve prevention, treatment and care and support outcomes. (See HIV-Sensitive Social protection Guidance Note: and UNAIDS new Investment Framework: ) For review of impacts/evidence, see: Temin, Miriam (2010), HIV-Sensitive Social Protection: What does the evidence say?, Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS. Miller, Elizabeth and Michael Samson (2012) “HIV-sensitive Social Protection: State of the Evidence 2012 in sub-Saharan Africa. Commissioned by UNICEF and produced by the Economic Policy Research Institute, Cape Town. (Forthcoming) See Framework’s Chapter IV:

40 Social protection interventions
Multi-sector approach: Education Social protection interventions can make investments in education more equitable as they can contribute to increasing demand and use, which alongside investments in service provision can enhance human development outcomes. Barriers Social protection interventions Financial access: Costs associated with education (school fees, materials, transportation and uniforms) Opportunity costs (e.g., labour trade-off)  Help cover formal and informal costs of schooling and ensure access to education Social transfers (cash transfers, education grants) Removal of user fees Vouchers Subsidies Location and distance: High costs (financial and time) associated with distance and transportation  Help cover transportation costs and travel time associated with reaching the closest school facilities. Societal and cultural norms: Gender dynamics and discrimination Language barriers and schooling’s lack of socio-cultural pertinence (ex. for indigenous children) Early marriage and child-bearing  Social protection interventions, including policy reform and legislation can contribute to prevent discrimination and ensure access to education services by excluded groups. Sources: UNICEF. Social Protection Strategic Framework. New York: UNICEF, 2012 In 2010, UNESCO and UNICEF launched a joint global Out-of-School Children Initiative (OOSCI) to help address data and analytical gaps, enhancing the development of child profiles, identifying key barriers (demand and supply) to school participation, and developing effective strategies and policies. As part of OOSCI, UNICEF is currently developing a study on out-of-school children that looks at social protection interventions and education outcomes, analyses of the effectiveness of demand-side and supply-side policies in addressing barriers to school participation, and at strategies related to management and governance. Specifically on demand-side barriers, the study attempts to assess policies such as the abolition of school fees and grants, subsidies, cash transfers, school feeding programmes, and micro-supplements as key responses for addressing the underlying causes and determinants of children not being in school. (Study forthcoming) UNICEF, in collaboration with the World Bank and other partners, established the School Fee Abolition Initiative (SFAI) in Its main objective is to remove education costs to ensure equitable access to education services. The rationale behind SFAI is that: (i) despite improvements in the number of out-of-school children, there are still structural disparities between groups (rural/urban; boys/girls) and many children, even if enrolled, are struggling to stay in and/or complete school; and (ii) demand-side interventions such as SFAI can encourage sector-wide reforms and need to be integrated into national education programmes and systems. For more information, visit: <www.ungei.org/infobycountry/247_712.html>. See Framework’s Chapter IV:

41 Multi-sector approach: Early Childhood Development
Social protection programmes can contribute to improved ECD outcomes and reduce inequities by enabling families to have greater resources and time to care for their children and by dismantling barriers that inhibit access to or investments in childcare services. ECD-specific vulnerabilities Social protection interventions (examples) ECD impacts (examples) Sub-optimal stimulation and inadequate care Cash transfers; child grants/allowances Increased investments by households/families in ECD services and programmes In-kind transfers (nutritional supplements; fortified food, etc.) Improved nutritional status of children and thus enhanced health and education outcomes Removal of user fees for childcare centres; free state provision of ECD services Increased use of childcare and pre-school facilities Abuse, neglect Competing duties and/or limited access to stimulation interventions Legislation reform, including maternity leave; childcare facilities in the workplace Improved child development outcomes due to enhanced attachment and bonding, exclusive breastfeeding, and increased quality time between parents and children Family care services, e.g., home-based care Linkages with existing treatment, care and support programmes for infants and children living with HIV/AIDS, and/or children with disabilities are actively promoted Sources: UNICEF. Social Protection Strategic Framework. New York: UNICEF, 2012 See Framework’s Chapter IV:

42 Social protection interventions
Multi-sector approach: Water and Sanitation Social protection interventions can contribute to enhanced WASH-related outcomes; help ensure access to safe water and sustainable sanitation by removing social and financial barriers (start-up and maintenance). Access barriers Social protection interventions Financial barriers: Fees for water, time, energy, and transportation costs (particularly relevant in remote locations, and among women and girls) Social transfers can promote enhanced household capacity to cover water supply fees as well as to afford maintenance, operation and supplies to enhance water quality (e.g., filters). Climate change – increases pressure on availability of water resources Public work programmes can be designed with a climate adaptation approach, prioritizing investments in water and soil conservation structures. Financial barriers when moving from temporary to sustainable, long-term sanitation facilities Social transfers can promote household’s capacity to invest in long-term, sustainable sanitation services as well as to afford hygienic supplies such as soap, etc. Social norms/behaviour change associated with particular sanitation and hygiene practices Social transfers can be linked with information, training and communication campaigns that promote safe behaviour and practices. Social protection interventions can contribute to enhanced WASH-related outcomes. In particular, it can help ensure access to safe water and sustainable sanitation (one of the three pillars of UNICEF’s Water and Sanitation Framework) by removing social and financial barriers (start-up and maintenance). See United Nations Children’s Fund, ‘UNICEF Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Practices for 2006–2015’, UNICEF Executive Board, New York, 2006. Edwards, Paul, ‘Reducing Financial Barriers to Accessing WASH Services’, UNICEF, New York, 2011. Sources: UNICEF. Social Protection Strategic Framework. New York: UNICEF, 2012 See Framework’s Chapter IV:

43 Multi-sector approach: Maximizing impacts across sectors – What does the evidence say?
Impacts on poverty gap and inequality Child protection: Impact on reduction in child labor, increase in birth registration, prevention of family separation Health: Improved preventive health care; use of health services; reduction in infant and maternal mortality rate. Nutrition: stunting; maternal nutrition, BMI scores Education: enrolment and attendance rates; grade transition and reduction in drop outs HIV/AIDS: access to prevention and treatment; reduction in risky behavior; ART adherence; ECD: impact on the cognitive development of children including improving motor skills, visual reception and language development Water and sanitation: access to sustainable sanitation and safe water sources Social protection interventions can contribute to enhance sector outcomes by removing barriers to access and use of services and goods. Social protection interventions contribute to equitable outcomes and inclusion, closing gaps in terms of access to services and securing livelihoods. Sources: UNICEF. Social Protection Strategic Framework. New York: UNICEF, 2012; UNICEF. “Social Protection: Accelerating the MDGs with Equity.” Social and Economic Policy Working Briefs. UNICEF Policy and Practice. August 2010. See Framework’s Chapter IV: Impacts on poverty gap and inequality Child protection: Impact on reduction in child labor, increase in birth registration, prevention of family separation Health: Improved preventive health care and reduced illness; reductions in use of health services; reduction in infant and maternal mortality rate. Nutrition: reduction in stunting; maternal nutrition, BMI scores Education: enrolment and attendance rates; grade transition and reduction in drop outs HIV/AIDS: access to prevention and treatment; reduction in risky behavior; ART adherence; ECD: impact on the cognitive development of children including improving motor skills, visual reception and language development Water and sanitation: access to sustainable sanitation and safe water sources

44 Multi-sector approach: Maximizing impacts across sectors - examples
Child Protection In Brazil, the Programa de Erradicaçao do Trabalho Infantil (PETI) reduced both the probability of children working and their likelihood to be engaged in higher-risk activities. In Nepal’s Karnali region, the child grant programme (conditional on birth registration) increased the number of registered under-5 children from 20,896 to 85,624 between March and October 2010. Recipients of Cambodia’s Education Sector Support Project (scholarships) were 10 percentage points less likely to work for pay. Health - Improved preventive health care and reduced illness (MDG 4, 5) In Ghana, user fee exemptions for pregnant women led to a reduction in their maternal mortality rate. In Niger, consultations for children under 5 quadrupled and antenatal care visits doubled after the removal of user fees in 2006 for children under 5 and pregnant women. In Mexico, OPORTUNIDADES led to a 17 per cent decline in rural infant mortality (8 percentage points on average). Maternal mortality also reduced by 11% among participants and impacts were strongest in more marginalized communities. Sources: UNICEF. Social Protection Strategic Framework. New York: UNICEF, 2012; UNICEF. “Social Protection: Accelerating the MDGs with Equity.” Social and Economic Policy Working Briefs. UNICEF Policy and Practice. August 2010. See Framework’s Chapter IV:

45 Multi-sector approach: Maximizing impacts across sectors - examples
Nutrition (MDG 1) – reductions in stunting, improved consumption and dietary diversity Cash programmes in South Africa (pension and child grants), Mexico (CCT), Malawi (unconditional CT), and Colombia (CCT) all demonstrate reductions in stunting. In Bangladesh, under-5 children whose households participated in the Chars Livelihood Programme gained, on average, 0.7 mm in height, 210 g in weight and 1.39 mm in mid-upper arm circumference. Newborns whose mothers participated in the Colombian Familias en Acción in urban areas increased in average weight by 0.58 kilograms, attributed to improved maternal nutrition. HIV/AIDS (MDG 6) – support for HIV infected/affected including OVCs, some evidence on access to treatment and adherence. In Malawi, cash transfers to adolescent girls increased school attendance, and led to a significant decline in early marriage, pregnancy, self-reported sexual activity and HIV prevalence among beneficiaries. In Kenya, cash transfers were used by households to increase ARV treatment for children and adults. In Zambia, the home-based care programme increase the number of patients able to access ART and other treatments for HIV, AIDS and TB. Sources: UNICEF. Social Protection Strategic Framework. New York: UNICEF, 2012; UNICEF. “Social Protection: Accelerating the MDGs with Equity.” Social and Economic Policy Working Briefs. UNICEF Policy and Practice. August 2010. See Framework’s Chapter IV:

46 Multi-sector approach: Maximizing impacts across sectors - examples
Education - Higher school enrollment rates, reduced school drop-out (MDG 2,3) Kenya: gross enrollment rate increased from 88 percent to 112 percent due to the abolition of school fees ( ) Transfer programmes in Ethiopia, South Africa, Malawi, Mexico, Nicaragua, Brazil, Ecuador, Cambodia and Turkey: significant percentage point increases in enrollment and/or attendance. In its first year, the Food for Education programme in Pakistan helped increase school enrolment in schools by 28 per cent for girls and 22 per cent for boys. In South Africa, girls were 8 percent and boys were 3 percent more likely to attend school if they lived with a household member receiving the Old Age Pension. Early Childhood Development The Roving Caregivers home-based care programme in St. Lucia led to significant positive impact on the cognitive development of children including improving motor skills, visual reception and language development Water and Sanitation In South Africa, the presence of a flush toilet in the household is significantly more likely the greater the number of years a pensioner received a pension. In Bangladesh, the Targeting the Ultra Poor (TUP) programme was associated with a greater rate of accumulation of sanitation assets among recipients between 2002 and 2005. Sources: UNICEF. Social Protection Strategic Framework. New York: UNICEF, 2012; UNICEF. “Social Protection: Accelerating the MDGs with Equity.” Social and Economic Policy Working Briefs. UNICEF Policy and Practice. August 2010. See Framework’s Chapter IV:

47 Key Emerging Areas for Social Protection
See Framework’s Chapter VII:

48 Emerging global issues
Humanitarian Action and Social Protection: what is the potential role of social protection in the different stages/contexts of humanitarian action (risk management, response, transition, fragility, etc)? How can SP contribute to strengthen households’ and communities’ resilience? Adolescence and Youth Development: Adolescent and youth specific vulnerabilities? How can SP enhance capacities, including access to secondary education and reducing skills gaps? Social Protection and the Urban Poor: How to adjust programs and policies to better serve the urban poor? Migration: How can SP address added vulnerabilities of children migrating with families and those left behind?

49 Humanitarian Action and SP
Slow onset and chronic emergencies, such as desertification Demographic change Rising food and fuel prices Pollution Water scarcity Etc. Social Protection can: Enhance resilience Create a solid base for sustainable recovery Establish links between emergency response and medium-to-long-term development See Framework’s Chapter VII:  What is the potential role of SP at the different stages of humanitarian action (risk management, response, transition, fragility and others) ?

50 Adolescence and Youth Development
Early marriage Increased risk for HIV/AIDS Gender discrimination Child labour Under and unemployment Increased costs of services – ex: secondary school Traffic-related accidents, gang-violence, risky behavior High risk for rape, sexual assault and exploitation Social Protection can: Improve access to services, especially for girls Address employment-related vulnerabilities Provide counseling and information through social support services Reduce discrimination through legislation, especially against girls See Framework’s Chapter VII:  What are adolescent and youth-specific vulnerabilities?  How can SP enhance capacities, including access to secondary education and reduction of skills gaps?

51 Social Protection and the Urban Poor
Urban poor are integrated into the cash and market economy and may be more vulnerable to economic shocks Despite increased availability of services in contrast with rural areas, these may be unaffordable and/or poor quality Diversity and high population density High levels of informality- less access to social assistance programmes and contributory pensions Children and youth face increased risks due to violence, victimization, drug-use Vulnerability to environmental health problems: e.g., respiratory problems due to pollution, overcrowding; water-related illnesses. Social Protection can: Increase affordability of services Protect those working in the informal sector Increase parents’ ability to work by providing childcare Provide employment opportunities through public works informality, high population density, high mobility and socio-economic diversity UNICEF/NYHQ /Kate Brooks See Framework’s Chapter VII:  How to adjust programmes and policies to better serve the urban poor?

52 Migration While migration exposes migrants and their families to risks and vulnerabilities, it also creates opportunities. Social protection can maximize the positive effects and minimize the risks and vulnerabilities associated with migration .This is particularly relevant for adolescents and youth, who now represent a large proportion of migrants. Impact of migration on children who: migrate with their families: barriers accessing to services; in some case higher risks to ill health and the impact of emergencies, migrate independently and live without family care: exposed to greater risks of exploitation and trafficking; are left behind with elder members of extended families when one or both parents migrate. Social protection can: Reduce ‘push’ factors for migration by addressing its root causes – especially those linked with poverty and exclusion Develop/strengthen responses for those who stay Help prevent brain drain Reduce vulnerability of migrants in transition or destination countries Help ensure rights are protected Improve migrants’ access to social services Provide a source of income and food security  What are potential SP strategies for migrant children and their families? Four types of vulnerabilities can be identified : temporal – associated with the different stages in the migration process; spatial – dislocation and remoteness, particularly relevant for transit migration; socio-cultural – perspectives, norms and values with respect to migrants, closely linked with culturally held notion of race, gender and illegality; and socio-political – institutional constraints in the host country that create a strain in migrants’ access to services, political participation, etc. These vulnerabilities can be further exacerbated by characteristics shared by migrants, such as their likelihood of living in urban informal settlements or working in informal sectors See: Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel, and Myrtha Waite, ‘Migration and Social Protection: A concept paper’, Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, 2003. Children and youth are particularly vulnerable to some of the impacts of migration. Migration can have an impact on (i) children who migrate with their families and then face significant barriers in accessing to services, limited protection in the workplace and in some case higher risks to ill health and the impact of emergencies, (ii) children who migrate independently and live without family care and are exposed to greater risks of exploitation and trafficking; (iii) children who are left behind with elder members of extended families when one or both parents migrate. Social protection interventions – both formal and informal – can play an important role in addressing the needs of children and families affected by the consequences of their migratory status and/or migration of family members. See Framework’s Chapter VII:

53 Roundtable Discussion
Session 1: Integrated Social Protection Systems: Enhancing Equity in Human Development Session 2: Challenges and emerging issues (financing, humanitarian action, fragile states) Session 3: Collaborative Agenda for Action We will continue to discuss some of these issues at greater depth after lunch at the roundtable discussion

54 A Collaborative Agenda for Action
UNICEF Social Protection Work an overview Show and Tell on Social Protection Bonn, 2011 A Collaborative Agenda for Action See Framework’s Chapter VIII:

55 Social protection critical in current context; urgency to reduce poverty, vulnerability and exclusion, protect populations from shocks, and ensure human development The moment is right: full international support to build social protection Social protection as an essential policy tool to ensure rights of children are met, especially those excluded Expansion of coverage of adequate and effective social protection Integrated social protection systems

56 A Collaborative Agenda for Action
Expand coverage and strengthen integrated social protection systems to respond to the multiple and compounding vulnerabilities faced by children and their families Identify effective and sustainable financing for the expansion and strengthening of SP Address the social dimensions of vulnerability in SP programmes Convene multiple partners and facilitate coordination Facilitate knowledge exchange and learning Link social protection and humanitarian action, including in fragile contexts Proposal on collaboration: a starting point for further dialogue See Framework’s Chapter VIII:

57 Isabel Ortiz, Jennifer Yablonski, Natalia Winder
THANK YOU Contact: Isabel Ortiz, Jennifer Yablonski, Natalia Winder UNICEF Social Protection Work an overview Show and Tell on Social Protection Bonn, 2011


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