# Waves. Types of waves: Transverse – displacement wave Transverse – displacement wave examples: water, light Longitudinal – compression wave Longitudinal.

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Waves

Types of waves: Transverse – displacement wave Transverse – displacement wave examples: water, light Longitudinal – compression wave Longitudinal – compression wave examples: sound, earthquake (p wave)

Parts of a Wave Amplitude (a) Frequency (f) = waves/second Wavelength (λ) V = fλ Velocity = frequency x wavelength Node trough crest

Properties of Waves

Reflection Waves bouncing back from a barrier. Waves bouncing back from a barrier. Angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection when measured from the normal (perpendicular line). Angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection when measured from the normal (perpendicular line).

Refraction Bending of waves as the go from one medium (substance) to another. Bending of waves as the go from one medium (substance) to another. Snell’s Law: n 1 sinΘ 1 = n 2 sinΘ 2 Snell’s Law: n 1 sinΘ 1 = n 2 sinΘ 2 N = index of refraction, a value that differs with the substance N = index of refraction, a value that differs with the substance

Diffraction Bending of waves as they pass around a barrier. Bending of waves as they pass around a barrier. Maximum diffraction comes with small slits and long wavelengths. Maximum diffraction comes with small slits and long wavelengths.

Interference Two or more waves interacting. Two or more waves interacting. Constructive interference – crest meets crest or trough meets trough. Constructive interference – crest meets crest or trough meets trough. Destructive Interference – crest meets trough. Destructive Interference – crest meets trough.

D sin Θ = n λ Tan Θ = x/L Central Maximum 1 st order maximum 1 st order minimum

Resonance An object vibrating at it’s own natural frequency. An object vibrating at it’s own natural frequency. For a closed tube, λ = 4(l + 0.4d) and v = f λ For a closed tube, λ = 4(l + 0.4d) and v = f λ v = 332 m/s + (0.6 m/s)(T) v = 332 m/s + (0.6 m/s)(T)

Polarization Polarized filters are filters with many lines oriented in the same direction with a width smaller than the amplitude of light. Polarized filters are filters with many lines oriented in the same direction with a width smaller than the amplitude of light. Light waves oriented perpendicular to the openings in the filter cannot get through, while those oriented in the same direction can. Light waves oriented perpendicular to the openings in the filter cannot get through, while those oriented in the same direction can. Reflected light from cars, water, roads, etc, is reflected horizontally, so polarized sunglasses are polarized vertically. Reflected light from cars, water, roads, etc, is reflected horizontally, so polarized sunglasses are polarized vertically.

Electromagnetic Spectrum Made of waves traveling at the speed of light (3 x 10 8 m/s) Made of waves traveling at the speed of light (3 x 10 8 m/s) In order, lowest energy to highest: power, radio, microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-ray, gamma, and hard-gamma. In order, lowest energy to highest: power, radio, microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-ray, gamma, and hard-gamma. Energy is directly related to frequency. Energy is directly related to frequency.

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