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Child Abuse Lecture 5.  Abuse can involve children, women, men and the elderly.  The dental team can assist in early detection of someone being abused.

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Presentation on theme: "Child Abuse Lecture 5.  Abuse can involve children, women, men and the elderly.  The dental team can assist in early detection of someone being abused."— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Abuse Lecture 5

2  Abuse can involve children, women, men and the elderly.  The dental team can assist in early detection of someone being abused when conducting an exam within the oral cavity.

3  Children whose parents abuse substances are almost three times more likely to be abused and four times more likely to be neglected than other children  It is estimated that each day five children die as a result of child abuse or neglect.

4  Parents with substance abuse problems are less educated and less likely to be employed full time;  Many parents with substance abuse problems have histories of child abuse or neglect that might affect their violent behavior.

5  There is accumulating research evidence that physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and neglect during childhood increase a person's risk of developing substance abuse problems.  A recent study confirms that children of alcoholics have an altered brain chemistry that may make them more likely to become alcoholics themselves (whether or not they have been abused)

6 In reported cases:  the most persistent form of child abuse is neglect (60 percent),  followed by physical abuse (25 percent),  sexual abuse (13 percent), and  emotional maltreatment (5 percent).  More than 50 percent of the victims were 7 years old or younger; slightly  More than half of victims were girls

7  It is estimated that 42 of every 1,000 children (under age 18) in the United States have been either abused or neglected.  The number of sexually abused girls is three times the number of boys.  Boys are more likely than girls to be seriously injured by abuse.  Boys are also more likely to be emotionally neglected.

8  Child abuse is any act that harms the child's physical or emotional development.  Neglect occurs in 78.3% of child abuse cases.  Dental neglect is one type of abuse because it is the deliberate act to seek and obtain treatment for dental problems by a parent or guardian.  Failure to obtain treatment causes the child pain, infection, or interfere with adequate function of mastication.

9 Signs that the dentist search for when he suspects a case of abuse :  Fractured incisors – may be due to repeated trauma.  Burns on lips – due to forced feeding of hot food.  Bruises on lips - in children may be due to forced pacifier use.

10  Frenum bruising or tear – due to forced feeding of a child or an elderly or due to a slap across the face.  Oral or perioral syphilis or gonorrhea or palatal petechiae or erythema – probable sexual abuse.  Bite marks – 65% of bite marks are visible on areas that are not covered by the child's clothes.

11  Bite marks on abused children tend to come from individuals who have uncontrollable anger toward the child.  Infants that are bitten by the perpetrator are more disciplinary in nature as the bites are basically driven by a specific behavior by the infant.

12  Dental professionals are called upon to participate in crimes related to children, especially if a bite mark is associated with the victim.


14  The elder population of 65 and older is increasing each year, so are the cases for elder abuse.  Each year, millions of elders suffer from abuse.  The United States Department of Justice indicates that violent crimes against people ages 65 and older are approximately 4 in 1,000.

15 Elder abuse can be put into 5 categories:  physical abuse  sexual abuse,  psychological abuse  financial abuse  violation of rights.


17 Clues for physical abuse :  Injuries with incompatible histories.  Repeated injuries to head and neck regions.  Approximately 30% of known elder abuse cases were related to neck and facial regions.

18  traumatic hair loss  rope or strap marks indicating physical restraint  multicolored bruises indicating injuries at various healing stages.  lacerations  puncture wounds  oral soft tissues injuries  jaw fractures  fractured or avulsed teeth

19 The NCPEA reported some indicators of elder abuse :  Injuries that are unexplained or are unlikely.  Family members providing different explanations of how injuries were sustained.

20  Repeated injuries with frequent hospitalizations in different medical facilities to prevent medical practitioners from observing abuse pattern.  Delay between onset of injury and seeking medical care.

21  It is crucial to document the signs of the repeated deliberate orofacial trauma in the dental patient record when it is recognized by the dental professional.

22  The documentation of findings includes: - a description of the area, shape, size, color - a picture either using the intraoral camera or digital camera to help with the documentation.  This documentation assists the dental professional to report the abuse patterns.  It helps with the investigation of abuse cases.

23  Prevention of elder abuse focuses on educational programs, which are critical elements in any broad approach to domestic violence.

24 These educational programs focus on :  knowledge as to how to protect themselves  their rights  how to seek help  educating professionals, caregivers, and the general public regarding the nature of elder abuse and its prevention.

25  Progress should be made to increase professional awareness and involvement through training sessions on abuse, with the specific aim of fears concerning treatment of the elderly among staff.



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