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Managing Weight and Body Composition

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Presentation on theme: "Managing Weight and Body Composition"— Presentation transcript:

1 Managing Weight and Body Composition
Chapter 6 Managing Weight and Body Composition

2 Maintaining a Healthy Weight
Lesson 1 Maintaining a Healthy Weight

3 The Weight-Calorie Connection
Body Image: the way you see your body Affected by several factors……??? Calories: units used to measure energy, both in food and the energy your body uses Energy Balance: the calories you consume must equal the calories your body burns

4 The Weight-Calorie Connection
Calories: Their Source Some foods have more calories than others Carbohydrates, proteins and fats as well as portion size adds up calories Carbohydrates and proteins supply four calories per gram, whereas fats supply more than twice that with nine calories per gram. The Energy Equation If you take in fewer calories than you burn you will lose weight If you take in more calories than you burn, you gain weight Adding just 100 extra calories to your daily food intake without changing your activity level will add 10 pounds to your weight in one year

5 Determining Your Appropriate Weight Range
Your appropriate weight is influenced by several factors: gender, age, height, body frame, growth rate, metabolic rate and activity level Body Mass Index (BMI) – ratio that allows you to asses your body size in relation to your height and weight BMI = weight (in pounds) x 703/[height (in inches)]^2 Figure 6.1 – pg. 146

6 Body Composition Body Composition: the ratio of body fat to lean body tissue Body Weight vs. Body Fat Overweight: a condition in which a person is heavier than the standard weight range for her height Obesity: refers specifically to having excess amount of body fat

7 Weight-Related Health Risks
Overweight: A Health Risk Excess body fat strains the muscles and the skeletal system It forces the heart and lungs to work harder and increases the risk of high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol Increase the risk of type 2 diabetes Overweight and obesity is the cause of consuming excess calories and from physical inactivity, genetics can play a role Dietary Guidelines for Americans: ABC

8 Weight-Related Health Risks, cont.
Underweight: A Health Risk A condition in which a person is less than the standard weight range for her height Cause of genetics or fast metabolism Some people diet or exercise excessively to stay thin A person who is too thin has little stored fat to provide the body with an energy reserve and may not be consuming enough calories and nutrients for health and growth

9 Healthful Ways to Manage Weight
Formal Weight Management Plan: Target your appropriate weight Set realistic goals Personalize your plan Put your goal and plan in writing Evaluate your progress

10 Healthy Weight Loss/Gain Strategies
Eat 1,700 to 1,800 calories daily to meet your body’s energy needs Include your favorites in moderation Eat a variety of low-calorie, nutrient dense foods Drink plenty of water Gain Increase your caloric intake Eat often and take second helpings Eat nutritious snacks Build muscle

11 Physical Activity and Weight Management
Whether you want to lose, gain or maintain weight, regular physical activity should be part of your plan Aerobic exercise burns calories and helps lose fat Weight lifting, resistance training will increase muscle mass and produce firm, lean body shape Added benefits to regular physical activity: Helps relieve stress, promotes a normal appetite response, increases self-esteem

12 Fad Diets and Eating Disorders
Lesson 2 Fad Diets and Eating Disorders

13 Risky Weight-Loss Strategies
Fad Diets Weight-loss plans that are popular for only a short time Usually hard to stick with because they limit food variety Severely restrict the foods a dieter eats therefore they fail to provide the body with the nutrients it needs for health and growth Any weight lost on fad diets is usually regained Examples???

14 Liquid Diets A person on a liquid diet replaces all of his or her food intake with a special liquid formula Very low calorie diets and do not meet the body’s energy needs, often feel fatigued Do not provide the body with fiber and needed nutrients, rely on high-protein and low-carb liquids as the only source of nutrients and can cause serious health problems and even death US Food and Drug Administration require these products to carry warning labels and recommends that they be used only under close medical supervision

15 Fasting To fast is to abstain from eating
Might seem like a quick way to lose weight but fasting for more than short periods deprives your body of needed nutrients and energy Without a fresh supply of nutrients each day your body starts to break down the proteins in your muscle tissue for energy Some religions and cultural rituals involve brief periods of fasting – it is not dangerous for the average person – might not be good for diabetics or other health conditions

16 Diet Pills Many diet pills work by suppressing appetite
May cause drowsiness, anxiety, a racing heart, or other serious side affects May be addictive Some cause the body to lose more water than normal, leading to dehydration Diet pills claim to “burn”, “block”, or “flush” fat from the body, but a low-risk pill that meets these claims has not yet been developed

17 Weight Cycling The repeated pattern of loss and regain of body weight
Is common in people who follow fad diets Fad diets or products may seem to help people lose weight quickly, but weight loss is usually from water, not body fat Water weight lost is quickly regained Slow and steady weight loss is the best strategy for long-lasting results

18 The Risk of Eating Disorders
Effort to lose weight can get out of control Becoming obsessed with thinness can lead to eating disorders Eating disorders – an extreme, harmful eating behavior that can cause serious illness or even death Exact cause is unknown, might be brought on by mental or emotional factors such as poor body image, social and family pressures and perfectionism 90 percent of those with eating disorders are females, estimated one percent of females ages have this illness People who suffer from this need professional help

19 Anorexia Nervosa Disorder in which the irrational fear of becoming obese results in sever weight loss from self-imposed starvation Psychological disorder with emotional and physical consequences It relates to a persons self-concept and coping abilities Outside pressures, need to feel accepted, high expectations and a need to achieve are characteristics of anorexia Genetics and other biological factors may play a role in the development of this disorder Symptoms include: extremely low caloric intake, an obsession with exercising, emotional problems, unnatural interest in food, distorted body image, denial of an eating problem

20 Health Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa
Physical: malnutrition and starvation, drastic reduction of body fat may cause females to stop menstruating Loss of bone density, low body temperature, low blood pressure, slowed metabolism, reduction in organ size Irregular heart beat that can lead to cardiac arrest and sudden death Treatment: clinic or hospital to regain weight and strength by nutrients, as well as psychological treatment

21 Bulimia Nervosa Disorder in which some form of purging or clearing of the digestive tract following cycles of overeating Person usually fasts or follows a strict diet and then binges, or quickly consumes large amounts of foods After eating, the person may vomit or take laxatives to purge the food from the body After the purge the person will try to diet again to gain a sense of control and avoid putting on weight Most likely the cause is societal pressure, self-esteem issues, and family problems

22 Health Consequences of Bulimia Nervosa
Repeated binging, purging, and fasting can cause serious health problems and even death Frequent vomiting and diarrhea can lead to dehydration, kidney damage and irregular heart beat Vomiting can destroy teeth enamel, causes tooth decay, damages the tissues of the stomach, esophagus and mouth Frequent use of laxatives disrupts digestion and absorption and may cause nutrient deficiencies, change the composition of the blood Treatment: medical and psychological counseling

23 Binge Eating Disorder Disorder characterized by compulsive overeating, consume large amounts of food at one time but do not try to purge This disorder may signal the use of food as a coping mechanism for strong emotions or depression Treatment: professional psychological counseling and sometimes medication Health Consequences: unhealthful weight gain, which contributes to type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke, gall bladder problems, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and increased risk of certain types of cancer

24 Help For Eating Disorders
People with eating disorders need professional medical and psychological help Benefit from support groups and clinics If you believe a friend might be developing an eating disorder, discuss it with a trusted adult, such as a parent, counselor or school nurse

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