12 THE POWER SUBSTATION In a substation there are Primary Equipments:
13 THE POWER SUBSTATION The Primary equipments in the Substation need to be ”controlled”. The word CONTROL in a substation has nothing to do with Process Control, where the word CONTROL is usually associated to ”feedback systems”:
22 THE POWER SUBSTATION One very simple interlocking: Earthing Switch and Disconnector I can OPEN / CLOSE the Disconnector ONLY if the Earthing Switch is OPEN. If the Earthing Switch is CLOSED I cannot operate the Disconnector.
37 THE PROTECTION RELAYS The circuit breaker opens and interrupts the fault current. The relay sees no fault conditions anymore and it resets. Circuit breaker remains open, the fault has been cleared.
39 THE PROTECTION SYSTEM Radial Feeders: No communication
40 THE PROTECTION SYSTEM Radial Feeders: No communication
41 THE PROTECTION SYSTEM Radial Feeders: No communication
42 THE PROTECTION SYSTEM Radial Feeders: No communication
43 THE PROTECTION SYSTEM Radial Feeders: Communication
44 THE PROTECTION SYSTEM Radial Feeders: Communication
45 THE PROTECTION SYSTEM Radial Feeders: Communication
46 THE PROTECTION SYSTEM Radial Feeders: Communication
47 PROTECTION signals (Trip, Block, Acceleration..) are sent through the station bus. Horizontal communication IEC 61850 APPLICATION: PROTECTION
48 GOOSE = Generic Object Oriented System Event. Is an unacknowledged multicast message that is repeated with a certain strategy allowing the supervision of the Horizontal Communication. GOOSE communication for PROTECTION and CONTROL
57 IEDs from different vendors can exchange and use information over a common communications media. No need to have protocol converters. Reporting: Vertical Communication. IEC 61850 APPLICATION: REPORTING TO SCADA / RTU
58 IEC 61850 APPLICATION: SCADA/RTU COMMUNICATION The communication between SCADA / RTU and the IEDs is defined in the IEC 61850 standard (MMS / FTP). Data exchanged can be: Control (operating primary objects) Log Reporting of events Disturbance Files Upload
60 IEC 61850: NETWORK TOPOLOGY The data traffic runs on Ethernet, 100 Mbit/s. This means that in the IEC 61850 substation there are Ethernet switches. Protection and Control signals are dependent on the correct functionality of the communication system, which has in the Ethernet switches one of its most important factors.
65 Bay A Bay Unit (IED) PTRC (Trip, Operate) IEC 61850: The SCL language (IED modelling)
66 Bay Unit (IED) PTRC (Trip, Operate) SCL Bay A IEC 61850: The SCL language (IED modelling)
67 Bay Unit (IED) PTRC (Trip, Operate) SCL Bay A IEC 61850: The SCL language (IED modelling)
68 Bay Unit (IED) PTRC (Trip, Operate) SCL Bay A IEC 61850: The SCL language (IED modelling)
69 SCL IEC 61850: The SCL language (IED modelling) It is possible to “structure” the Logical Nodes, and group them under different Logical Devices. The “rules” of this structure are described in the XML file.
70 The SCL file also describes what the IED can do (services). In this case it seems that the IED cannot offer upload of disturbance recorder file, as the “FileHandling Service” is not listed: IEC 61850: Services (IED modelling) While this IED allows to upload the disturbance recorder files (FileHandling Service” is listed):
71 Depending on the information they carry, there are different types of SCL files: ICD (IED Capability Description) CID (Configured IED Description) SCD (Substation Configuration Description) SSD (System Specification Description) IID (Instantiated IED Description) SED (System Exchange Description) IEC 61850: Different SCL files
74 An IEC 61850 substation is described by one special SCL file, called SCD file (Substation Configuration Description). IEC 61850: Engineering Process
75 IEC 61850: Engineering Process There are software tools that can extract engineering information from the SCD file and represent them in a comfortable way to the user:
76 IEC 61850: Engineering Process REPORTING Vertical Communication All the IEC 61850 devices (IEDs) describe themselves with help of the SCL language. SCL information from all IEDs are integrated into the IEC 61850 Engineering Tool.
77 IEC 61850: Engineering Process The SCADA system is also IEC 61850 compliant, and it can read the SCD files understanding how the substation looks like, which IEDs are present and which information they send to the SCADA system. SCADA / RTU Vertical Communication
78 IEC 61850: Engineering Process GOOSE Horizontal Communication In the SCL file there is written which IED talks to which IED. The standard messages among IEDs in the same substation are called GOOSE messages (Generic Object Oriented Substation Event). GOOSE messages can contain protection application information (TRIP, Block etc.).
79 IEC 61850: Engineering Process The IEC 61850 Engineering Tool One IEC 61850 Engineering Tool is in principle a “software that handles SCL files”. The initial SCL files are provided by the IED vendor software tools, and they are called ICD files (IED Capability Description). The ICD files are imported in the IEC 61850 Engineering TOOL and GOOSE – Reporting information are added for each IED, creating the so called SCD file (Substation Configuration Description). The SCD file is then exported from the Engineering Tool. IED vendor tools will import that file and will download in the IEDs the IEC 61850 information that are written in the SCD files.
81 IEC 61850: Engineering Tools Documentation The SCD file describes the substation in IEC 61850 language (SCL). The IEC 61850 tool is able to elaborate such information and to show it in human readable format, like a PDF file.
99 IEC 61850: TESTING How do we test all of this? How do we test the Network Topology (Switches)? How do we test the Vertical Communication to SCADA? (IEC 61850-8-1, MMS, Reporting) How do we test Interlockings? (IEC 61850-8-1 GOOSE) How do we test Protection Schemes? (IEC 61850-8-1 GOOSE and IEC 61850-9-2 SV)
101 Information about IEC 61850 KTH: Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan University courses on IEC 61850 for SA (Substation Automation)
102 Information about IEC 61850 Tissues (Technical Issues) database www.tissues.iec61850.com IEC 61850 standard is a dynamic standard!. You must follow it!
103 IEC 61850 Blog Information on new IEC 61850 documents Information on IEC 61850 events Information on new instruments and techniques on the IEC 61850 www.blog.iec61850.com Competent and fast up to date blog on IEC 61850 Information about IEC 61850
104 Information om IEC 61850 Elforsk www.elforsk.se
105 Megger http://www.megger.com IEC 61850 test equipment, tools and litterature Information om IEC 61850