# The Respiratory System 1 2 3 4 5 1. Pharynx 2. Larynx – Houses the vocal chords 3. Trachea 4. Primary bronchi 5. Diaphragm.

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The Respiratory System 1 2 3 4 5 1. Pharynx 2. Larynx – Houses the vocal chords 3. Trachea 4. Primary bronchi 5. Diaphragm

C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP (Energy) The Equation for Cellular Respiration

The Respiratory System Common passageway for food and air Food transport tube Voice box Wind pipe Functional part of lung Site of gas exchange Prevents food from entering air passageways Transports air to right and left lung 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

-------------------------------------------------------------- Anatomical Dead Space Anatomical Dead Space Holds 150 ml air – the only air in the respiratory system that is available for gas exchange is air in the alveoli. What is anatomical dead space? The area between the pharynx and alveoli where no gas exchange takes place. How much air from each breath sits in the anatomical dead space?

What is the function of the alveoli? Gas exchange – oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli.

Daltons Law The total pressure exerted by a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the individual pressures (partial pressures) of each of the different gases in the mixture. Atmospheric Pressure (pATM) = 760 mm Hg at sea level Note: Atmospheric Pressure can be referred to as Barometric Pressure

Dalton’s Law pAtm at sea level = _________ Air – 78 % N 2 – 21 % O 2 pO 2 = (Percent O 2 in air) X (pAtm) 760 mm Hg pO 2 = ______ X _____ = _______.21760mmHg158 mm Hg

An increase in elevation results in a decrease in atmospheric (barometric) pressure. Mount Everest: 29,142 feet pAtm = 245 mm Hg pO 2 =.21 X 245 mmHg = 51mm Hg pO 2 = ________ X ___________

View Of Whitney: 14,495 feet; pAtm = 400 mm Hg Mount Whitney pO 2 = _____ X _____ = _____.2140084 mm Hg

Mt. Everest: 29,142 ft. pAtm = 245 mm Hg Effects of Elevation Mt. Whitney 14,495 ft. pO 2 =.21 X 245 = 51mm Hg What is pO 2 at the top of Mt. Everest?

What will happen to the size of this balloon if you carry it from sea level up a mountain? What happens to the distance between oxygen molecules as you carry the balloon up a mountain?

pATM is _____________ Molecules are __________ Sea Level versus the Top of Mount Everest Mount Everest Sea Level pAtm is ______________________ Molecules are _________________ higher than Everest closer together much lower than sea level further apart

Hypoxia = ___________ Humans experience hypoxia at high elevation The top of Red Slate Mountain Low Blood Oxygen

pO 2 = 100mmHg pCO 2 = 40mmHg pO 2 = 40mmHg pCO 2 = 45mmHg pO 2 in tissues is 40mmHg pCO 2 in tissues is 45mmHg Gas Diffusion Blood entering alveolar capillaries Blood leaving alveolar capillaries

97 --------------------75 Oxygen – Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve 3. What happens to the Saturation of Hemoglobin when pO 2 increases? 1 2. 1. pO 2 2.Percent saturation of hemoglobin (Hb) 3. The higher the pO 2 the higher the saturation of Hb. (this means that more oxygen is being carried by the blood.)

What happens to pO 2 as elevation increases? It decreases

Factors that affect the partial pressure of oxygen What happens to body the saturation of hemoglobin when body temperature rises? ---- Normal body temperature According to the graph, at high body temperatures the saturation of hemoglobin decreases (the blood is carrying less oxygen).

Factors that affect the saturation of hemoglobin: Blood pH and blood CO 2 levels

Boyles Law A: Normal volume and pressure B: Volume is decreased resulting in _____ pressure C: Volume is increased resulting in ______ pressure increased decreased

Rib cage expands when external intercostals contract Rib cage gets smaller when external intercostals relax

Ventilation of the Lungs

Ventilation: Moving Air in and Out of Lungs Contract external intercostalsContract Diaphragm _______ Volume of Thoracic Cavity _______ Pressure of Thoracic cavity pAtm is ________ than air pressure in thoracic cavity AIR MOVES ____________ (Ribs move up and out)(Diaphragm moves down) 1 2 3 4 1. Increase 2. Decrease 3. Greater 4. Into the lungs - INHALATION

Respiratory Rate and Tidal Volume Respiratory rate = Number of breaths you take per minute – Textbook value = 12 breaths per minute Tidal Volume – Volume of air inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing – The volume of air inhaled or exhaled in a normal resting breath – Textbook value = 500 ml per breath

Pulmonary Ventilation (PV) – The volume of air that moves in out of the lungs in one minute – PV = Respiratory Rate X Respiratory Volume – Resting PV = Respiratory Rate X Tidal Volume = ____________ X __________ = ___________________ 12 breaths/min 500 ml /breath 6,000 ml/min

Regulation of Respiratory Rate The primary factor that controls respiratory rate is the amount of CO 2 in the blood. – Increased CO 2 causes a/an ___ in respiratory rate – Decreased CO 2 causes a/an ___in respiratory rate – Hyperventilation _____ blood CO 2 levels – Holding your breath ____ blood CO 2 levels An increase in blood CO 2 has what effect on blood pH? 1 2 3 4 1. Increase 2. Decrease 3. Decreases – You are exhaling more thus go are getting rid of more carbon dioxide 4. Increases – You are not exhaling thus you are not getting rid of carbon dioxide

Regulation of Respiratory Rate CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 - What happens to carbon dioxide when it diffuses from your tissues into your plasma. What does the above equation mean? That carbon dioxide combine with water in plasma to create carbonic acid. This causes a decrease in blood pH.

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